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Wordsicorth s Ecclesiastical Sonnets. THE REFORMERS. 

A 2 




THE following Questions have been prepared, 
in the hope that they may supply a want which 
the Author knows to have been felt in Schools, 
namely, that of a work illustrating the Thirty-nine 
Articles of the Church of England, sufficiently 
brief, and yet at the same time sufficiently 
comprehensive. In arranging the Questions, his 
object has been, as far as possible, to exercise 
the understanding rather than the memory ; 
and a certain amount of knowledge in the Pupil 
is presupposed ; on this account several of the 
Questions have not any answers subjoined. He has 
also left it to the Catechist to add some questions 
here and there, in order to fill up the outline 
of proof. The Latin version of the Articles is 
given with the English, on account of the light 
which the former often casts upon the meaning 
of the latter ; nor has the Author scrupled 

A 3 


occasionally to illustrate the quotations from 
the New Testament by a reference to the original 
Greek ; but these references are so introduced 
as not (it is hoped) to preclude the Book from 
the use of English students, or from admission 
into Schools where English only is taught. 

The Author commends to the Divine Bless 
ing this humble service. His labour will be 
amply repaid, if he shall be found to have suc 
ceeded in presenting the doctrines of the Church 
of England in a form at once instructive and 
attractive to her youthful members. 

Abbey House, Shrewsbury, 
November, 1844. 



IN the present Edition of this Volume a few 
alterations and additions have been made. But 
wherever these occur, the passages have been 
enclosed in brackets, to avoid inconvenience in the 
use of this with the former impressions. 

Little Missenden Vicarage, Amersliam, 
February, 1849. 


IN the reign of Henry VIII., as the doctrines of 
the Reformation advanced, various Formularies of 
Faith were drawn up, of which the first appeared 
in 1536. This Formulary was set forth hy Convo 
cation, and with the Royal Authority, under the 
title of "Articles devised by the Kinge s Highncs 
Majestie to stably she Christian quietnes, &c." It 
is supposed that Melancthon had a voice in these 
Articles ; and, at all events, the definition of 
justification contained in one of them, is a trans 
lation from his " Loci Theologici." 

In the year 1538, a conference took place be 
tween some Lutheran Theologians and the Eng 
lish Divines, at which they drew up a statement 
of the principal Articles of Faith, with regard to 
which there was a very general unanimity. In 
drawing up this statement, they used the formulary 
published in 1536, and the Augsburg Confession ; 
and the document so prepared is still extant. 
This appears to have been the channel through 
which the Augsburg Confession found its way into 
our Articles, because it is known that the docu- 


ment above referred to was used in the drawing 
up of our Articles, and because no other passages 
out of the Augsburg Confession appear in the 
Articles, but whafc are found in that document. 

No further progress was made towards the es 
tablishment of doctrine till near the end of the 
reign of Edward VI., when in 1551, Archbishop 
Cranmer received an order from the King to frame 
a book of Articles on Religion, which he drew up 
and submitted to the other Bishops. These Arti 
cles were 42 in number, and were published by 
Royal Authority. 

Upon the accession of Mary, these Articles 
were of course repealed. But in the fourth year 
of the reign of Elizabeth (1562), they were again 
brought forward, and the care of them given to 
Archbishop Matthew Parker, who having revised 
them (by a reference, it is believed, to a document 
composed in 1551, and called the Confession of 
Wirtemberg) and reduced them to 38, brought 
them into the Upper House, where with a few 
alterations they were received. They were then 
sent to the Lower House, and subscribed by all 
the Clergy. At a subsequent review in 1571, the 
29th Article, which had been omitted, was again 
added, and the Articles, now 39 in number, were 
authorized by Act of Parliament, 

The Articles of 1562 were drawn up in Latin 
only; but in 1571 they were subscribed by the 


members of the two Houses of Convocation, both 
in Latin and in English ; and therefore the Latin 
and English Versions are to be considered as 
equally authentic. The English Version was 
prepared by Bishop Jewell. 

It has been stated that the Articles, as originally 
drawn up in 1552, were 42 in number. Those 
which were subsequently suppressed were as fol 
lows : 

The 39th. That the resurrection is not already 
past ; but at the last day men shall rise with the 
same bodies they now have. 

The 40th. That departed souls do not die, nor 
sleep with their bodies and continue without sense 
till the last day. 

The 41st. That the fable of the Millenaries is 
contrary to Scripture, and a Jewish dotage. 

The 42nd condemned those who believed that 
the damned after some time of suffering shall be 

The Thirty-nine Articles were once more so 
lemnly confirmed and subscribed by Convocation 
in the reign of James I., 1603 ; and subscription 
to them required from every person to be or 
dained, in the following words : 

"That he alloweth the Book of Articles of 
Religion, agreed upon by the Archbishops and 
Bishops of both Provinces, and the whole Clergy, 
in the Convocation holden at London, in the year 

of our Lord God 1562 ; and that lie acknowledged 
all and every the Articles therein contained, being 
in number nine-and-thirty, besides the Ratifica 
tion, to be agreeable to the Word of God/ 

These Articles have now for nearly three cen 
turies exhibited the faith of the Anglican Church. 
Accurate in stating truth, firm in opposing error, 
cautious on abstruse points, and Scriptural through 
out, they have been a bond of union amidst all 
the varying extravagances of doctrine and disci 
pline, which from time to time have threatened to 
divide the Church. They are a rich inheritance, 
the value of which they can best appreciate, who 
know how dearly it was purchased, and what 
blessings it has conferred. Nor can we better 
either honour the memory of those saintly and 
judicious men who have bequeathed it to us, 
or glorify Him whose servants they were, than by 
defending it whilst we live, and transmitting it, if 
possible, unimpaired to our successors. 




The Christian Doctrine with reference to the Father, the 

Son, and the Holy Ghost 1 

The Rule of Faith 22 

Doctrines relating to Christians as Individuals 35 

Doctrines relating to Christians as Members of a Society . . 71 




Of Faith in the Holy Trinity. 

THERE is but one living and true God, everlasting, 
without body, parts, or passions ; of infinite power, 
wisdom, and goodness ; the Maker and Preserver of all 
things, both visible and invisible. And in unity of this 
Godhead there be three Persons, of one substance, 
power, and eternity ; the Father, the Son, and the 
Holy Ghost. 

De fide in Sacrosanctam Trinitatem. 

Unus est vivus et verus Deus, aeternus, incorporeus, 
impartibilis, impassibilis ; immensse potentise, sapientiae, 
ac bonitatis, Creator et Conservator omnium, turn visi- 
bilium, turn invisibilium. Et in unitate hujus Divinae 
naturae tres sunt Personae, ejusdem essentiae, potentiae, 
ac aeternitatis, Pater, Filius, et Spiritus Sanctus. 

What does the first Article assert 1 ? What is the 
foundation of all religion 2 ? How does the unseen 

The existence and unity of God, his positive and negative 
attributes, and the doctrine of the Trinity. 
2 Faith in God. (Heb. xi. .) 




God manifest his eternal power and Godhead? 
(Rom. i. 20.) What is the state of those who will 
not acknowledge God in his works ? (Rom. i. 20.) 
Suppose a savage saw a watch, and observed its 
movements, what would he conclude l ? Could he 
suppose that it came by chance ? Do we see the 
evidences of design in the works of creation ? For 
example, is man suited to be an inhabitant of the 
earth ? Is the earth, &c. adapted to man ? Is the 
eye formed for the reception of light ? The ear 
for that of sound? How is this argument ex 
pressed by the Psalmist ? (Psalm xciv. 9.) Have all 
nations acknowledged a Supreme Being in some 
form or other ? What do you infer from this 2 ? 
What is conscience 3 ? How does the possession of 
this faculty affect us in reference to our Creator * ? 
What do you mean by being responsible ? If we 
are responsible, what do we require 5 ? What is the 
peculiar evidence derived from conscience as to the 
nature of God 6 ? 

What two distinct evidences are derived from 
revelation as to the existence of God 7 ? What is 
a miracle ? What evidence brought Nicodemus 
to Christ ? (John iii 2.) What power does our 
Lord assign to his own miracles ? (John v. 36.) 

1 That they were designed. 

2 The probability of some original revelation. 

3 That within us which shows us right from wrong. 

4 It makes us responsible to Him. 5 A conscience. 

6 It teaches us that God is a moral Governor, who will call us to 
account hereafter for our actions. 

7 Miracles and Prophecy. 


Show that a similar power is given to prophecy. 
(John v. 46.) 

Unity of God. How is Moses directed to de 
clare the unity of God ? (Deut. vi. 4.) 

Living and true. How is God described by 
Jeremiah ? (Jer.x.10.) What instructions are given 
to the captive Jews in that chapter ? Why, par 
ticularly, is God there described as "living and 
true l ?" From what does St. Paul remind the 
Thessalonian converts that they had turned ? 
(1 Thess. i. 9.) For what purpose ? 

Everlasting. Who existed before the creation 
of the heavens and the earth ? What do you 
mean by existing ? Did God always exist ? Will 
God always exist ? How is this truth asserted 
by Moses? (Psalm xc. 2.) How does God de 
scribe his own eternity ? (Rev. i. 8.) 

Without body, parts, or passions. What are 
meant by negative attributes 2 ? Can any thing 
material be said to be perfect ? Is God a perfect 
being ? What do you infer 3 ? How is God 
described in John iv. 24 ? How is the nature of a 
Spirit explained by our Lord? (Luke xxiv. 39.) 
What do you mean when you say that God is 
without parts 4 ? What was the error of Sabellius 5 ? 

1 In opposition to the false and inanimate gods of the 

Those which describe God by stating what He is not. 

3 That God is a Spiritual Being. 

4 The Latin word is impartibilis, " incapable of being divided." 
One of the earliest heretics asserted that a part of the Divine 
nature rested on Christ. 

5 He denied the distinction of persons in the Trinity. 

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What is the declaration of the Athanasian Creed on 
this point l ? What is the literal meaning of the 
word passion 2 ? What do we observe in the 
arrangement of the natural world 3 ? What may 
we infer from this 4 ? How is this negative attribute 
expressed by Bakam ? (Numb, xxiii. 1 9.) What 
was the argument used by Paul and Barnabas to 
dissuade the people of Lystra from worshipping 
them? (Acts xiv. 14, 15.) Does the Scripture 
ever speak of God as affected with passions? 
How is He described in the second Commandment ? 
Is God ever described as possessed of a body 5 ? 
What do you understand by these expressions 6 ? 
For example : What divine attribute is expressed 
in Proverbs xv. 3 ? 

Of infinite power, wisdom, and goodness. What 
are positive attributes 7 ? What is the meaning of 
the word " infinite ?" Can God do what is con 
trary to his own perfections ? For instance ; can 
God lie, or deny Himself? Can God forgive 

1 " Neither confounding the persons, nor dividing the sub 

2 Suffering. But because violent emotions of the mind cause 
suffering, therefore passion*, are taken to represent the feelings 
which cause these emotions, such as anger, fear, love, joy, &c. In 
the Latin version the expression, " without passions," is rendered 
by impassibilis. 

3 Order and regularity. 

4 That the Creator is not affected by any violent passions. 

5 The face, the eyes, the hands, &c. of God, are spoken of. 

6 They are employed in condescension to our feeble concep 
tions, and to show us that, if God had our feelings, He would be 
so affected. 

7 Those which describe God by what He is. 


impenitent sinners? "Were God to do so, what 
attribute would He violate l ? How then would 
you express the power of God 2 ? How does the 
Psalmist describe the power of God ? (Ps. cxv. 3.) 
And our Lord ? (Matt. xix. 26.) What is meant 
by wisdom 3 ? How is this attribute expressed in 
the Psalms ? (Psalm cxlvii. 5.) And by St. Paul ? 
(1 Tim. i. 17.) To what source may all the evil 
that is in the world be traced ? Whence does all 
the good proceed ? (James i. 1 7.) Which, prepon 
derates ? What may we infer ? How is this at 
tribute expressed by the Psalmist ? (Psalm lii. 1 ; 
cxlv. 9.) What is the most remarkable proof of 
the goodness of God to man 4 ? What feeling of 
the mind is the goodness of God intended to call 
into exercise 5 ? How is this expressed by David ? 
(Psalm Ixxiii. 25.) 

Maker and preserver of all things, both visible 
and invisible. Repeat Genesis i. 1. How is this 
expressed by St. Paul? (Col. i. 16.) When God 
had created things, did He leave them to them 
selves? What would have happened had He 
done so ? What truths are you taught by the 
fact that God is the preserver of all things 6 ? 
How is the continued agency of God declared by 

1 His justice. 

2 God is infinite in his power of performing whatever is not 
contrary to the perfections of his nature. 

3 The knowledge of things, together with the skill to apply it. 
The redemption of mankind by Jesus Christ. 

5 Love. Love to God as the most excellent Being, and the 
most to be desired by man. 

The continued agency, and the universal providence of God. 

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our Saviour? (John v. 17.) And by St. Paul? 
(Acts xxvi. 22 \) 

The doctrine of the Trinity. What is the doc 
trine of the Trinity in Unity 2 ? Was some idea 
of this doctrine entertained by any of the heathen 
philosophers 3 ? From whence probably did they 
derive their notions on this subject 4 ? What do 
you infer from this ? 

In Genesis i. 26, God says, " Let us make man/ 
How far does this passage convey us towards a 
proof of the doctrine 5 ? How many Persons are 
spoken of in 2 Samuel xxiii. 2 ? Who is meant 
by the Word ? How many Persons are spoken of 
in the account of our Saviour s baptism ? (Matt, 
iii. 16, 17.) Whose was the voice from heaven? 
Who went up out of the water? Who appeared 
descending like a dove ? Are the three Persons 
represented as performing different actions 6 ? On 
what festival of the Church is this passage ap 
pointed to be read 7 ? 

In whose Name were the Apostles instructed to 
baptize ? What do you mean by baptizing in the 

1 For further proof, see Heb. i. 3. Acts xvii. 28. Ps. cxlvii. 9. 
Matt. x. 29, 30. 

2 There is one God, the eternal, infinite, almighty. But in the 
unity of this Godhead there are three Persons, the Father, the 
Son, and the Holy Ghost ; each of these is God, and yet there is 
but one God. 

3 Plato, Parraenides, and others, held the doctrine of three 
Divine natures. 

4 From those who had heard or read the Scriptures. 

5 It proves that there are more persons than one. 

6 God the Father is speaking, God the Sou is ascending, and 
God the Holy Ghost is descending. 

7 On Trinity Sunday. 


name of any one l ? In whom then were the converts 


to Christianity required to believe ? Repeat the 
apostolic benediction. (2 Cor. xiii. 14.) In whose 
Name was St. John directed to write to the seven 
Churches ? (Rev. i. 4, 5.) How is God the Father 
described ? God the Son ? Who do you mean by the 
seven Spirits 2 ? Why do you certainly infer that the 
seven Spirits mean the third Person of the blessed 
Trinity 3 ? Why is the Holy Spirit so represented 4 ? 
In what order are the three Persons mentioned 
in Matt, xxviii. 19 ? Is this order different in 
2 Cor. xiii. 14 ? What is the order in Rev. i. 
4, 5 ? What do you infer from this 5 ? 

Was this doctrine the general belief of the early 
Church 6 ? What is the testimony of Justin Martyr 
to this doctrine 7 ? [Of Tertullian 8 ?] And of St. 
Augustine 9 ? 

1 Engaging to faith in that person, and obedience to him. 

2 The Holy Spirit, the third Person of the blessed Trinity. 

3 Because no created being could give grace and peace. 

4 To show the variety of his gifts and operations. 

5 An equality of persons, it being indifferent in what order they 
are mentioned. 

6 It was universally believed in the apostolic times, and those 
were considered infidels who denied it, 

7 JUSTIN MARTYR. [" But this same God (i. e. the Father) 
and the Son that proceedeth from him, and the Holy Ghost, we 
worship and adore with a rational and tz ue worship." (Apol. I.)] 

8 TERTULLIAN. [" The Son is in his own right God Almighty, 
as He is the Word of Almighty God. (Tert. adv. Prax. c. 17-)] 

9 ST. AUGUSTINE. " Plainly therefore, and without all doubt 
it is to be believed, that the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, are one 
Almighty God, eternal, unchangeable ; and every one of these is 
God, and all of them but one God." (Aug. de tempore, Serm. 38.) 

B 4 


Of the Word, or Son of God, which was made very Man. 

The Son, which is the Word of the Father, begotten 

from everlasting of the Father, the very and eternal 

, God, and of one substance with the Father, took Man s 

nature in the womb of the blessed Virgin, of her 


\; substance : so that two whole and perfect natures, 

that is to say, the Godhead and Manhood, were joined 

together in one Person, never to be divided, whereof 

4yis one Christ, very God, and very Man,j who truly 

ju suffered, was crucified, dead and buried, jto reconcile 

his Father to us, and to be a sacrifice, not only for 

original guilt, but also for all actual sins of men. 

De Ferbo, sive Filio Dei, qui verus homo factus est. 

Filius, qui est Verbum Patris, ab aeterno a Patre 
genitus, verus et aeternus Deus, ac Patri consubstan- 
tialis, in utero beatae Virginis, ex illius substantial, 
naturam humanam assumpsit ; ita ut duae naturae, 
divina et humana, integre atque perfecte in unitate 
personae fuerint inseparabiliter conjunctae, ex quibus est 
unus Christus, verus Deus, et verus homo, qui vere 
passus est, crucifixus, mortuus, et sepultus, ut Patrem 
nobis reconciliaret, essetque hostia, non tantum pro 
culpa originis,^ verum etiam pro omnibus actualibus 
hominum peccatis. 

What does the second Article assert T ? From 
what passage is the expression " The Word of the 
Father" derived ? (John i. 1.) How do you know 
that the Word there spoken of means the Son of 
God ? (John i. 14) How does a man make 
known his will * ? And how does God reveal his 
will ? (Heb. i. 1.) There are three kinds of son- 

1 The Divinity of Christ, his Incarnation, and Atonement. 

2 By word of mouth. 


ship ; in which sense is Christ the Son of God ? 
How is Christ therefore described? (Heb. i. 5.) 
Why is Christ declared to be " begotten from ever 
lasting * ?" What passage declares that Christ is 
of one substance with the Father ? (John x. 30.) 
Christ s divine nature was of the same substance 
with the Father ; of what substance was his human 
nature 2 ? When were the two natures thus joined 
together? What was Christ before his incarnation? 
What did He become afterwards? Will Christ 
always remain God and man ? For what purpose 
did Christ suffer and die 3 ? What do you mean 
by reconciliation * ? How did Christ reconcile his 
Father to us 5 ? 

The Divinity of Christ. Repeat John i. 1. 
What does the expression " In the beginning was 
the Word" denote 6 ? What is meant by the ex 
pression " The Word was with God 7 ? Before 
whose judgment seat does St. Paul declare we 
shall stand ? (Rom. xiv. 1 0.) What proof does he 
give ? (Rom. xiv. 11.) What do you infer from 
this 8 ? What grace does St. Paul exhort the 
Philippians to cultivate in Phil. ii. 5 9 9 ? After 

1 He is begotten, otherwise He would not be a Son, and from 
everlasting, otherwise He would not be God. 

2 Of the substance of the Virgin Mary. 

3 To reconcile his Father to mankind. 

4 Restoration to favour. 

5 By making Himself a sacrifice for sin. 

6 That Christ is eternal. 

7 [This expression points out "the Word" as a distinct Person, 
just as the expression " the Word was God" points Him out as of 
one substance with God.~] 

8 That Christ is God. Humility. 

B 5 


whose example ? How did Christ manifest his 
humility ? (Phil. ii. 6 8.) What do you mean 
hy the expression "the form of God 1 ?" Why 
do you conclude this 2 ? How did He make Him 
self of no reputation 3 ? Repeat 1 John v. 20. 
Against what sin does St. John caution Christians 
in the following verse ? Who does he say is come ? 
What has the Son of God given to Christians 4 ? 
How may Christians be said to be under the 
protection of God 5 ? Who then is declared to be 
the "true God and eternal life?" What is the 
argument of the first chapter to the Hebrews 6 ? 
In what terms does God the Father address God 
the Son ? (Heb. i. 8.) What Divine attributes are 
implied in the word Jehovah 7 ? Repeat Jeremiah 
xxiii. 5, 6. What word is used in the margin in 
stead of Lord ? What did the Jews understand by 
the expression "Son of God 8 ?" What was the 
ground of the charge of blasphemy brought against 
Christ? (John x. 33.) What question was put to 
our Lord, when upon his oath before Caiaphas? 

1 The real nature of God. 

2 Because Christ is said in the same passage to have taken 
upon Himself " the form of a servant ; " and as " the form of a 
servant" must mean a servant, therefore "the form of God" 
must mean " God." 

3 He emptied Himself of his Divine glory. The Greek is, 
kavrbv tKtvwGt, fj.op(j)ijv dov\ov Xafidjv. 

4 Understanding to place themselves under the protection of 
the true God. 

5 By being in his Son Jesus Christ. 

6 To establish the superiority of Christ to all created beings. 

7 Self-existence and eternity. 

8 They considered it to be of equal import with God. 


(Matt. xxvi. 63.) What was our Lord s answer ? 
(Matt. xxvi. 64.) What did this answer imply l ? 

We have seen that Christ is God, and we may 
therefore expect to find Divine attributes assigned 
to Him. How does our Lord express his own 
omnipresence ? (Matt, xviii. 20.) What Divine 
attribute is assigned to our Lord by St. Peter in 
John xxi. 17? Who inspired the writers of the 
Old Testament? (1 Peter i. 11.) What is the 
testimony of St. Paul on this point ? (2 Tim. 
iii. 16.) By whom did God make the worlds? 
(Heb. i. 2.) How is this further stated in Col. 
i. 16? On whom did St. Stephen call while 
his murderers were stoning him ? (Acts vii. 59.) 
What evidence does this afford of the Divinity of 
Christ 2 ? 

The Incarnation of Christ What do you mean 
by the term " incarnation 3 ?" In what words does 
Isaiah predict the incarnation of Christ ? (Isaiah 
vii. 14.) What happened accordingly in the ful 
ness of time ? (Gal. iv. 4.) How is this event de 
scribed by St. Matthew ? (i. 18.) Of what two parts 
does man consist ? Did Christ take both a human 
body and a human soul ? With respect to the 
body, what is the evidence in Heb. x. 5 ? Did 
Christ take part of flesh and blood? (Heb. ii. 14.) 
Was He subject to weariness? (John iv. 6.) 

1 That He was the Son of God, according to the Eastern mode 
of affirming a thing. 

2 St. Stephen, full of the Holy Ghost, pays our Lord divine 

3 The taking of flesh, the assuming of human nature. 

B 6 


Hunger ? (Matt. iv. 2.) Thirst ? (John xix. 28.) 
With respect to the soul, did the mind of Christ 
grow and increase like that of other men ? (Luke 
ii. 52.) What do you mean by wisdom ? Had 
Christ feeling as well as intellect 1 Could He 
sorrow for others? (John xi. 35. Luke xix. 41.) 
Could He sorrow^ for Himself? (Matt, xxvi. 37.) 
In what two respects did our Lord differ from 
other men l ? 

The Atonement. The word sacrifice is used in 
different senses. In what sense is it used in Heh. 
xiii. 15 ? In what sense is it used in this Article 2 ? 
What do you mean hy atonement 3 ? How did 
Christ become an atonement ? Could any suffer 
ings short of death have atoned for our sins ? 
What is the wages of sin? (Romans vi. 23.) 
In what respect did the death of Christ differ 
from that of other men * ? Did He truly suffer 
and die ? What proof did the soldiers, who 
pierced the side of Christ, afford of his death 5 ? 
What steps did Pilate take to satisfy himself of 
the death of Christ ? (Mark xv. 44, 45.) Why is 
it asserted that Christ was buried 6 ? How does 
Isaiah predict the sufferings of Christ ? (Isaiah 
liii. 4 6.) Did Christ merely die to put away 
the sin of Adam ? How is this expressed by St. 

1 His miraculous conception and his sinlessness. 

2 As a propitiatory sacrifice ; an offering to make an atone 
ment for sin. 

3 The reconciling of two parties ; the setting them at one. 

4 It was voluntary. 5 John xix. 33, 34. 

6 It affords an additional proof of his death ; and in its cir 
cumstances it is the fulfilment of prophecy. 


Paul? (Rom. v. 16.) What is meant by redemp 
tion l ? How has Christ redeemed mankind ? 
(1 Peter i. 19.) Has Christ redeemed all man 
kind ? (1 John ii. 2.) How does the atonement 
prove the Godhead of Christ 2 ? How his man 
hood 8 ? 

Evidence from Antiquity. Did the early Church 
believe in the Divinity of Christ ? When did St. 
Ignatius live? (about A.D. 100.) What is his tes 
timony to the Divinity of Christ 4 ? At what Council 
was the Nicene Creed published? When was that 
Council held 5 ? In what terms does the Nicene 
Creed declare the Divinity of Christ ? How does 
St. Ignatius speak of the manhood of Christ 6 ? 
Give a testimony to the Godhead and to the man 
hood of Christ from St. Chrysostom 7 ? When did 
Clement of Rome live ? (about A.D. 90.) In what 
terms does he speak of the death of Christ 8 ? 

1 Buying back again. Delivering by paying a ransom. 
None but God could bear the sins of all the world. 

3 None but man could suffer. 

4 ST. IGNATIUS. " I glorify Jesus Christ, even God, who has 
endued you with wisdom." (S. Ignat. ad Smyrn. c. 1.) 

5 A.D. 325. 

6 ST. IGNATIUS. He says that " Christ was truly of the seed of 
David according to the flesh, the Son of God according to the will 
and power of God, having been truly born of a virgin." (Ep. ad 
Smyrn. 1.) 

7 ST. CHRYSOSTOM. " When thou nearest of Christ, do not 
think Him God only, or man only, but both together." (Chrysost. 
Xoy. tig TOV r/ /uov oraupoj/.) 

ST. CLEMENT. " Let us look stedfastly upon the blood of 
Christ, and see how precious his blood is in the sight of God, 
because being poured out on account of our salvation, it has 
obtained the gift of repentance for the whole world." (S. Clementis 

Corinth. Ep. [vii.]) 


Of the going down of Christ into Hell. 

As Christ died for us, and was buried, so also is it 
to be believed that He went down into hell. 

De desaensu Christi ad inferos. 

Quemadmodum Christus pro nobis mortuus est, et 
sepultus ; ita est etiam credendus ad inferos descendisse. 

What does tins Article assert? How is this 
truth asserted in the Apostles Creed ? Of what 
two parts does man consist ? How may death he 
described 1 1 Had Christ a human soul, and a 
human body ? What became of Christ s body after 
death ? What became of his soul ? How does this 
truth establish the certainty of Christ s death? 
What is the old meaning of the word Hell 2 ? 

On what subject does St. Peter speak in Acts 
ii. 22 3 ? What prophecy does he quote to prove 
the resurrection of Christ ? (Psalm xvi. 8 10.) Of 
whom does David speak in these words ? How 
does St. Peter explain his meaning ? What word 
does he substitute for Holy One? What is the 
Greek word translated Hell in that passage 4 ? 
How does this passage uake it evident that Christ s 
soul went to Hades 5 ? 

1 The separation of the soul from the body. 

2 The place of departed spirits, both of the righteous and the 

3 The death and resurrection of Christ. 

4 Hades, the unseen world. 

5 He declares that it was not left there. 


Evidence from Antiquity. What is the testi 
mony of Irenseus to this truth l ? Give the evidence 
of St. Athanasius 2 ? What was the error of Apol- 
linarius 3 ? What was the argument by which the 
Fathers confuted this error 4 ? 



Of the Resurrection of Christ. 

Christ did truly rise again from death, and took 
again his body, with flesh, bones, and all things apper 
taining to the perfection of man s nature; wherewith 
He ascended into heaven, and there sitteth, until He 
return to judge all men at the last day. 

De Resurrections Christi. 

Christus vere a mortuis resurrexit, suumque corpus 
cum carne, ossibus, omnibusque ad integritatem hu- 
manae naturae pertinentibus, recepit ; cum quibus in 
coelum ascendit, ibique residet, quoad extremo die ad 
judicandos homines reversurus sit. 

What does this Article assert 5 ? On what grounds 

1 IREN^US. " Our Lord was in the middle of the shadow of 
death, where the souls of the dead were, and then rose again with 
his body, and after his resurrection was taken up into heaven." 
(Irenceus adv. Hcer. 1. v. c. 31.) 

2 ST. ATHANASIUS. " Christ was buried ; his soul, that went to 
Hades : but seeing it could not be held there, it was restored to his 
body, and so He arose again." (Athan. de duabus in Christo naturis, 
vol. ii.) 

3 He denied that Christ had a human soul. 

4 That Christ descended into hell ; which could neither be true 
of his body, nor of his Godhead, but only of his soul. (See Pearson 
on the Creed, p. 237, ed. 1669.) 

The resurrection of Christ, his ascension, and his future 
coming to judgment. 


is the resurrection of Christ important l ? Is our 
Lord s resurrection predicted in the Old Testament ? 
(Psalm xvi. 9, 10.) How does our Lord predict 
his own resurrection? (Matt. xx. 19.) What signs 
did He give to the Jews for this purpose ? (Matt, 
xii. 39, &c.) Did the Jews remember this prophecy 
after our Lord s crucifixion? (Matt, xxvii. 63.) 
What directions were given by Pilate in conse 
quence ? (Matt, xxvii. 66.) What were the things 
which the watch showed afterwards to the chief 
priests 2 ? How do you infer this ? (Matt, xxviii.) 
12, 13.) What additional evidence is thus afforded 
to the truth of Christ s resurrection 3 ? To whom 
did Christ first appear? (Mark xvi. 9.) How 
many times did Christ appear? What was the 
greatest number of witnesses present at one time ? 
(1 Cor. xv. 6.) Which of the disciples doubted 
the truth of Christ s resurrection ? To what good 
purpose did the unbelief of Thomas tend 4 ? How ? 
(John xx. 27.) What other proof did our Lord 
give of the reality of his resurrection ? (Luke 
xxiv. 39 43.) How is the evidence of our Lord s 
resurrection summed up by St. Luke ? (Acts i. 3.) 
Christ s Ascension. How is our Lord s ascen 
sion prefigured in the Old Testament 5 ? On what 

1 It is his greatest miracle ; it is the fulfilment of prophecy ; 
it is a testimony that the atonement was accepted (Rom. iv. 25) ; 
and it is the earnest and assurance of our own resurrection. Rom. 
viii. 11, 1 Cor. xv. 20. 

2 The resurrection, with all its circumstances ; the appearance 
of the angel, &c. 3 It is attested by his enemies. 

* To the more " confirmation of the faith." (Collect for St. 
Thomas s Day.) 

5 By the ascension of Elijah, and by the entering in of the 
High Priest into the Holy of Holies. 


festival of the Church of England is the narra 
tive of Elijah s ascension appointed to he read ? 
How often did the High Priest under the Jewish 
law enter within the veil ? For what purpose ? 
How is this applied by the Apostle to Christ ? 
(Heh. ix. 11, 12.) How is Christ s ascension pre 
dicted in the Old Testament? (Psalm Ixviii. 18.) 
How did Christ predict his own ascension ? 
(John xvi. 28 ; xx. 17.) How is the event itself 
recorded ? (Luke xxiv. 50, 51. Acts i. 9.) Why is 
the ascension of Christ important l ? What is a 
forerunner 2 ? How is Christ described in Heh. vi. 
20 ? Christ then has gone up in his divine and hu 
man nature into heaven. Where is He in heaven ? 
What do you mean by the right hand of God ? 
With respect to what nature may Christ be said 
to be exalted ? Is this exaltation predicted in the 
Old Testament ? (Psalm ex. 1.) How long will 
Christ sit at the right hand of God ? What office 
is He now performing there ? (Heb. vii. 25.) 

Christ s future judgment. What truth is in 
volved in the doctrine of future judgment 3 ? What 
sect of the Jews doubted or denied a future state ? 
What part of the Old Testament did the Sadducees 
reject * ? Might they have discovered this truth in 
the Pentateuch ? (Matt. xxii. 31, 32.) What other 

1 It is a proof that the human nature can be admitted again 
into the presence of God. 

J One who goes before to prepare the way for others to follow. 

3 That of a future state. 

4 They rejected all the Old Testament, excepting the five books 
of Moses. 


intimations are given of a future state in the Old 
Testament ? (Job xix. 25, 26. Ezekiel xxxvii. 
Daniel xii. 2. Psalm xvii. 15, &c.) How is the 
coming of Christ clearly revealed in the New 
Testament ? (Acts x. 42 ; xvii. 31.) Why is a 
future judgment necessary l ? Why is Christ pe 
culiarly suited for this great purpose 2 ? In what 
three different states is Christ described in the 
Gospel 3 ? How does his last state, that in which 
He now is, differ from the first 4 ? Is Christ reign 
ing now? When will the mediatorial kingdom 
terminate ? (1 Cor. xv. 2528.) 

Evidence from Antiquity. How does St. Igna 
tius speak of the resurrection of Christ 5 ? How 
does St. Cyprian attest this truth 6 ? Quote a tes 
timony from Irenaeus 7 ? 

To vindicate God s moral government. 

2 Because as God He will judge the world in righteousness, and 
as Man He will be touched with the feeling of our infirmities. 

3 That before his advent ; that in which He was during his 
sojourn on earth ; and that in which He now is, at the right haud 
of God. (John xvi. 28. Phil. ii. 6, &c.) 

4 In his keeping the human nature, and being the Head of the 

5 ST. IGNATIUS. <( I know that He was in the flesh after the re 
surrection, and I believe that He is ; and when He came to those 
who were with Peter, He said to them, Take hold of me, feel me, 
and see that I am no unbodied, spirit. (S. Ignat. ad Smyrn. c. 3.) 

fi ST. CYPRIAN. " After He had spent forty days with his dis 
ciples, He was then taken up into heaven, a cloud being spread 
about Him, that the human nature which He loved, which He 
assumed, which He protected from death, He might triumphantly 
carry to his Father." (Cyprian, de idolor. vanitate, Tract. 4.) 

7 IRENAEUS. " Christ rose again the substance of flesh, and 
showed his disciples the mark of the nails and the wound in his 
side, which are proofs that his flesh rose again from the dead." 
(Iren. adv. Hcer. 1. v. c. 7-) 



Of the Holy Ghost. 

The Holy Ghost, proceeding from the Father and 
the Son, is of one substance, majesty, and glory, with 
the Father and the Son, very and eternal God. 

De Spiritu Sancto. 

Spiritus Sanctus, a Patre et Filio procedens, ejusdem 
est cum Patre et Filio essentiae, majestatis, et gloriae, 
verus ac eeternus Deus. 

What does this Article assert ? What is the 
meaning of the word Ghost * ? What is the relation 
which in this Article is declared to exist between 
the Holy Ghost, and the Father and the Son 2 ? 
Where is God the Father said to send the Com 
forter? (John xiv. 26.) Where does Christ say 
that He will send the Comforter ? (John xv. 26.) 
What do we infer from these two passages 3 ? 

The Personality of the Holy Ghost. What 
erroneous opinion has been held with regard to 
the Holy Spirit 4 ? What is the Greek word trans 
lated Spirit 5 ? How was this word applied by the 
ancient Greek writers 6 ? How is the Spirit here 
spoken of distinguished from all other spiritual 
beings 7 ? In what name are Christians baptized ? 
What is meant by being baptized in the name of 

It is an old Saxon word meaning " Spirit." 
1 He is declared to proceed from them both. 

3 That the Holy Spirit has the same relation to the Son that 
He has to the Father. 

4 That He is a mere quality or attribute derived from God, 
which when withheld is of no avail. 

livtv^a. 6 To the incorporeal beings of another world. 

7 By the epithet the Holy." 


any one ? What absurdity would result from 
hence, supposing that the Holy Spirit was a mere 
quality or attribute l ? Whom does St. Paul exhort 
the Ephesians not to grieve ? (Ephes. iv. 30.) Can 
a mere quality or attribute be grieved ? Who is 
said to make intercession for us ? (Rom. viii. 26.) 
With whom ? But if the Spirit of God intercedes 
with God, what must follow 2 ? Who wrought the 
miraculous gifts with which the early Church was 
endowed ? (1 Cor. xii. 11.) What description is 
given by Christ of the Comforter ? (John xiv. 26.) 
What office does Christ assign to Him? Which 


pronoun is used in this passage in reference to the 
Spirit ? Why ? How does the Holy Ghost differ 
from the Father 3 ? How from the Son 4 ? 

The Divinity of the Holy Ghost We have seen 
that the Holy Ghost is a person. What is his 
dignity ? Whose place was He sent to supply ? 
When Moses came forth from holding communion 
with God, what did he put on his face ? (Exod. xxxiv. 
34.) Why ? What allusion is made to this by St. 
Paul ? (2 Cor. iii. 15.) Who w r as that Lord with 
whom Moses communed on the mount 5 ? To whom 

1 Christians would then profess faith in a mere quality or pro 
perty, and that, too, associated with almighty and eternal agents. 

2 That He is distinct from God the Father. 

3 He is his messenger. 4 He is his successor. 

5 2 Cor. iii. 17- " The Spirit is here so plainly said to be the 
Lord, that is, Jehovah, the one eternal God, that the adversaries 
of this truth must either deny that the Lord is here to be taken for 
God, or that the Spirit is to be taken for the Spirit of God ; either 
of which denials must seem very strange to any person which 
considereth the force and plainness of the Apostle s discourse. * 
(Pearson on the Creed, p. 317, ed. 1669.) 


did Ananias lie ? In lying to the Holy Ghost, to 
whom in other words did he lie ? (Acts v. 3, 4.) Of 
whom are Christians said to be the temple ? (1 Cor. 
iii. 16.) How may they be said to be the temple 
of God ? What do you infer ? 

Why is this Divine Being called The Holy 
Spirit * ? How are Christians justified 2 ? Would 
justification alone be sufficient for the spiritual 
wants of man ? How are we to continue in the 
favour of God 3 ? Can we do this of ourselves ? 
How is this want supplied ? (Titus iii. 5. Romans 
viii. 26.) Is sanctification the work of a Divine 
Being ? 

Evidence from Antiquity. Did the early Church 
believe in the Divinity of the Holy Ghost ? Quote 
the testimony of St. Basil *. What is the evidence 
of St. Augustine 5 ? Of Tertullian 6 ? 

1 Because his special office is to sanctify. 

2 By the merits and death of Jesus Christ. 

3 By following after holiness. 

4 ST. BASIL. " Seeing what is common to the Father and Son, 
is common also to the Spirit ; seeing by the same things that God 
the Father and the Son are characterized and described in Scrip 
ture, by the same things is the Holy Ghost characterized and 
described ; it is hence gathered that the Spirit is of the same Deity 
with the Father." (Basil adv. Eunom. 1. 5.) 

5 ST. AUGUSTINE. " For so the Father is God, and the Son 
God, and the Holy Ghost God, and altogether one God ; and yet it 
is not in vain that in this Trinity none of them is called the Word 
of God but the Son, nor the gift of God but the Holy Ghost." 
(See Bereridc/e, Oxford edition, vol. i. p. 249.) 

6 TERTULLIAN. " In the mean time He poured forth the Holy 
Ghost, a gift which He had received from the Father ; the third 
name of the Godhead, and the third Person in the order or rank 
of the Divine Majesty." (Tert. adv Praxeam, c. 30.) 




Of the Sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for Salvation. 

HOLY Scripture containeth all things necessary to sal 
vation ; so that whatsoever is not read therein, nor may 
be proved thereby, is not to be required of any man, 
that it should be believed as an article of the Faith, or 
be thought requisite or necessary to salvation. In the 
name of the Holy Scripture we do understand those 
Canonical Books of the Old and New Testament, of 
whose authority was never any doubt in the Church. 

Of the Names and Number of the Canonical Books. 

Genesis The First Book of Samuel The Book of Esther 

Exodus The Second Book of Samuel The Book of Job 

Leviticus The First Book of Kings The Psalms 
Numbers The Second Book of Kings The Proverbs 
Deuteronomy The First Book of Chronicles Ecclesiastes,or Preacher 
Joshua The Second Book of Cantica, or Song of Solo- 

Chronicles mon 

Judges The First Book of Esdras Four Prophets the 

(Ezra) greater 

Ruth The Second Book of Esdras TwelveProphets the less. 

( Nehemiah ) 

And the other Books (as Hierome saith) the Church 
doth read for example ^and instruction of manners ; but 
yet doth it not apply them to establish any doctrine ; 
such are these following, 

The Third Book of Esdras Baruch the Prophet 

The Fourth Book of Esdras The Song of the Three Children 

The Book of Tobias The Story of Susanna 

The Book of Judith Of Bel and the Dragon 

The rest of the Book of Esther The Prayer of Manasses 

The Book of Wisdom The First Book of Maccabees 

Jesus the son of Sirach The Second Book of Maccabees. 


All the Books of the New Testament, as they are 
commonly received, we do receive, and account them 

De dimnis Scripturis, quod sufficiant ad salutem. 

Scriptura sacra continet omnia quse ad salutem sunt 
necessaria, ita ut quicquid in ea nee legitur, neque inde 
probari potest, non sit a quoquam exigendum, ut tan- 
quam articulus fidei credatur, aut ad salutis necessitatem 
requiri putetur. 

Sacrse Scriptures nomine, eos Canonicos libros veteris 
et novi Testament! intelligimus, de quorum auctoritate, 
in Ecclesia nunquam dubitatum est. 

De Nomintbus et Numero Librorum sacrce Canonicte 
Scriptures veteris Testamenti. 

Genesis Prior Liber Samuelis Liber Hester 

Exodus Prior Liber Regum Liber Job 

Leviticus Secundus Liber Samuelis Psalmi 

Numeri Secundus Liber Regum Proverbia 

Deuteron. Prior Liber Paraliporn. EcclesiastesvelConcionator 

Josuse SecundusLiber Paralipom.Cantica Solomonis 

Judicum Primus Liber Esdrae 4 Prophetse Majores 

Ruth Secundus Liber Esdrce 12 Prophetse Minores. 

Alios autem Libros (ut ait Hieronymus) legit quidem 
Ecclesia, ad exempla vitae, et formandos mores ; illos 
tamen ad dogmata confirmanda non adhibet ; ut sunt, 

Tertius Liber Esdne Baruch Propheta 

Quartus Liber Esdrse Canticum Trium Puerorum 

Liber Tobias Historia Susannse 

Liber Judith De Bel et Dracone 

Reliquum Libri Hester Oratio Manassis 

Liber Sapientioe Prior Liber Maccabseorum 

Liber Jesu filii Sirach Secundus Liber Maccabaeorum. 

Novi Testamenti omnes libros (ut vulgo recepti sunt) 
recipimus et habemus pro Canonicis. 


What does this Article assert 1 ? With regard to 
the first point, what is the difference between the 
Church of England and the Church of Rome 2 ? 
What is the meaning of the word canonical 3 ? 
What are canonical Scriptures ? Why is this term 
used 4 ? What do you mean by Apocryphal books 5 ? 

The sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for sal 
vation. What does the Church of Rome assert 
to be necessary to salvation, besides the Holy 
Scriptures 6 ? What is tradition 7 ? How may 
truths be handed down from age to age 8 ? If oral 
tradition is necessary for salvation, what must 
follow 9 ? Is all that is necessary for man to 


know revealed in Scripture? (John xx. 30, 31.) 
If traditions were also necessary, what might we 
expect 10 ? Is any thing to be gathered from the 
Scriptures themselves to lead us to suppose that 
they are incomplete ? What does St. Paul exhort 
the Thessalonians to hold? (2 Thess. ii. 15.) 
What were the traditions which they had received 
by mouth from St. Paul " ? Could they have con 
tained any thing necessary to salvation not to be 

1 That Holy Scripture contains all things necessary to salvation. 
It declares what are the Holy Scriptures, and gives the opinion 
of the Church with regard to the Books called Apocryphal. 

2 The Church of Rome asserts that the Scriptures are incom 
plete without the admission of oral tradition. 

3 That which may be taken as a rule. 

4 To distinguish them from those books which may not be 
taken to establish any doctrine. 

5 Books of doubtful origin and authority. 6 Oral tradition. 

7 Something handed down from generation to generation. 

8 Either orally, that is, by word of mouth, or in writing. 

9 That the Scriptures are incomplete. 

10 That the Scriptures would say so. 

11 Those truths which he had taught by his preaching. 


found in the Holy Scriptures ? Why ? (2 Tim. iii. 
16, 17.) How was the will of God made known 
in the earliest ages of the world * ? How did this 
mode of teaching accord with the circumstances 
of men at that time"? What happened notwith 
standing 3 ? When God set apart the Jewish 
nation, did He instruct them by tradition or by a 
written law ? Did they mix up traditions with the 
Divine law ? Were they condemned for so doing ? 
(Mark vii. 13.) If a practice is condemned in the 
first dispensation, what may we infer * ? What 
reason does St. Luke assign for writing his Gospel ? 
(Luke i. 4.) What kind of instruction was that 
to which he refers 5 ? 

The Church of England rejects oral tradition. 
Is there no kind of tradition which she allows 6 ? 
Mention some instances in which this kind of tra 
dition is justly available to establish the truth 7 . 
How has the Church determined the Canon of 

1 It was written in the heart of man, and then handed down 
from father to son. 

2 The great age to which men lived gave them time and oppor 
tunity to transmit or hand down the knowledge of the will of God 
from one to the other. For example; Methuselah lived 300 years 
in Adam s life- time, and Shem lived 100 years with Methuselah, 
and 100 with Abraham; so that there were but two links between 
Adam and Abraham. 

3 The law and the knowledge of God were lost. 

4 That it is condemned also in the second. 

5 Catechetical instruction ; instruction by sounding into the ear. 

6 She allows and makes continual use of historical tradition, 
which is the authenticated evidence of facts. 

7 The universal establishment of Episcopacy ; the substitution 
of the Lord s day for the Jewish Sabbath; the general prevalence 
of Infant Baptism, &c. [Not however that they rest only on 
historical testimony ; but are capable of fair proof by induction 
from Holy Scripture.] 


Scripture l ? What is the admission of Baxter on 
this point 2 ? 

The Canonical Books of the Old and New Testa 
ment Does our Saviour frequently allude to the 
Old Testament ? What general testimony does He 
give in the Gospel of St. Luke ? (Luke xxiv. 44.) 
How are the same words applied by Josephus 3 ? 
By whose inspiration is all Scripture given? (2 Tim. 
iii. 1 6.) To what part of the Scriptures was this 
expression originally applied ? 

We have seen that there is full evidence to the 
Divine authority of the Old Testament in the New. 
How must we prove the Divine authority of the 
Books of the New Testament * ? Were most of the 
Books of the New Testament always acknowledged? 
What would you infer from the doubts which existed 
with regard to a few of them 5 ? Were the writers 
of these books inspired men ? What do you 
infer 6 ? In what words does St. Paul declare 
this ? (1 Thess. iv. 8.) 

The Books called Apocryphal. Were the books 

1 By historical tradition, as she has received it from the 
fathers; by the evidence, i. e. of those who lived nearest the time 
in which those books were written. 

2 Baxter admits with regard to certain books of the Old Testa 
ment, that he could never have known them " to be written by 
Divine inspiration, but by tradition ;" meaning, of course, his 
torical tradition. (Baxter, Preface to Second Part of Saints 
Rest, 6.) 

3 To the whole Bible. (Joseph, cont. Apion. 1. i. 8.) 

* We must show that they are 1, genuine, or written by those 
whose names they bear; 2, authentic, or containing true accounts; 
3, inspired. 

5 These doubts prove their correctness, showing the caution 
with which books were admitted into the Canon. 

6 That their writings also were inspired. 


of the Apocrypha included in the Canonical books 
by the Jews ? By whom did God make known 
his will in times past to the fathers ? (Heb. i. 1.) 
Who was the last of the prophets? When did 
Malachi live ? Did the spirit of prophecy cease 
amongst the Jews after the time of Malachi ? 
When were the Apocryphal Books written l ? 

Evidence from Antiquity. Did the early Church 
believe in the sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures to 
salvation ? What is the testimony of Irenaeus 2 ? Of 
Tertullian 3 ? Of St. Cyril of Alexandria 4 ? Did 
the Primitive Church confirm the Jewish Canon of 
the Old Testament 5 ? Whose testimony is quoted 
in this Article with regard to the Apocryphal 
Books ? Is the evidence of St. Jerome on this 
point confirmed by others 6 ? 

1 They were written after the time of Malachi; or, at all events, 
if any of them had been written before, and that by the spirit of 
prophecy, they would have been received into the Canon by the 
Jews, which no one of them ever was. 

2 IRENAEUS. "The Scriptures are indeed perfect." (Lib. ii. 
c. 21. Oxf. Ed.) 

3 TERTULLIAN. "If it be not written, let him fear that woe that 
is appointed to those that put any thing to, or take any thing from, 
the word of God." (Tert. adv. Hermogen. c. 22.) 

* ST. CYRIL. " That which the Holy Scripture hath not said, 
how can we receive it, and put it into the catalogue of those things 
that be true ?" (Beveridge, vol. i. p. 268.) 

5 Eusebius, Gregory, and others, give a complete catalogue; and 
at the Council of Laodicea in the 4th century, the Canon of the 
Old and New Testament was settled just as we received it; except 
ing the Book of Revelation, which was omitted because they were 
laying down rules for reading the Scriptures in the Church. 

6 ST. ATHANASIUS. "Besides these, there are other books of the 
Old Testament not received into the Canon of the Scriptures, but 
only read to the catechumens, &c." (Atkanas. Synops. $. Scrip- 
turce, init.) EPIPHAMUS. " They are useful and profitable indeed, 
but are not brought into the number of Canonical books." (See 
Beveridge, vol. i. p. 286.) 

c 2 



Of the Old Testament. 

The Old Testament is not contrary to the New ; for 
both in the Old and New Testament everlasting life is 
offered to Mankind by Christ, who is the only Mediator 
between God and, Man, being both God and Man. 
Wherefore they are not to be heard, which feign that 
the old Fathers did look only for transitory promises. 
Although the Law given from God by Moses, as touch 
ing Ceremonies and Rites, do not bind Christian men, 
nor the Civil precepts thereof ought of necessity to be 
received in any commonwealth ; yet notwithstanding, 
no Christian man whatsoever is free from the obedience 
of the Commandments which are called Moral. 

De Veteri Testamento. 

Testamentum Vetus Novo contrarium non est, quando- 
quidem tarn in Veteri, quam in Novo, per Christum, 
qui unicus est Mediator Dei et hominum, Deus et homo, 
aeterna vita humano generi est proposita. Quare male 
sentiunt, qui veteres tantum in promissiones tempo- 
rarias sperasse confingunt. Quanquam lex a Deo data 
per Mosen (quoad coeremonias et ritus) Christianos nori 
astringat, neque civilia ejus praecepta in aliqua repub- 
lica necessario recipi debeant, nihilominus tamen ab 
obedientia mandatorum (quse moralia vocantur) nullus 
(quantumvis) Christianus est solutus. 

Wheat is the first assertion in this Article ? What 
proof is offered for this assertion ? What conclu 
sion is drawn ? Into what parts may the Mosaic 
law be divided ! ? Is the ceremonial law binding on 
Christian men ? Is the civil binding? Is the moral? 

You say that the Old Testament is not con 
trary to the New. What do you mean 2 ? Who 
is the sum and substance of both Testaments ? 

1 The ceremonial, the civil, and the moral. 

2 They do not teach different doctrine. 


What relation did Moses bear to Christ ? In what 
sense was Moses a Mediator 1 ? What does St. John 
declare to be the spirit of prophecy ? (Rev. xix. 
10.) Repeat the first prophecy of a Redeemer. 
(Gfen. iii. 15.) What was the promise given to 
Abraham? (Gren. xxii. 18.) How does Balaam 
prophesy of Christ ? (Numb. xxiv. 1 7.) Does our 
Saviour apply this expression to Himself in the 
New Testament? (Rev. xxii. 16.) Repeat the 
promise in Jeremiah xxxi. 33. How does this 
promise point out the nature of the future cove 
nant 2 ? Were the sacrifices of the Jewish law suffi 
cient in themselves to take away sin ? (Heb. x. 4.) 
To what did they all look forward ? 

Had there been no promise of future life through 
a Redeemer, to what alone could the old Fathers 
have limited the promises in the Old Testament 3 ? 
Who are meant here by the old Fathers ? Did the 
old Fathers look only to transitory promises ? 
Did Abraham ? (John viii. 56.) Did Moses ? (Heb. 
xi. 26.) Did David ? (Acts ii. 30, 31.) Did Job ? 
(Job xix. 25.) How is this truth stated in the 
Epistle to the Hebrews? (Heb. xi. 1316.) 

What is meant by the ceremonial law 4 ? Why 
might we infer that the ceremonial law would not 
be binding on Christian men 3 ? With regard to 

1 Moses was only a medium of communication with God; Christ 
is the medium of reconciliation. 

2 It points out its spirituality. 

3 To temporal blessings. 

The law relating to the outward circumstances of Divine 

5 Because it was only instituted for a particular purpose, and 

c 3 


what rite of the ceremonial law did there arise a 
dissension in the early days of the Church ? (Acts 
xv. 1, 2.) How was the dispute settled ? (verse 19.) 
What advice does St. Paul give to the Colossians 
on this point ? (Col. ii. 16.) How does he warn the 
Galatians against the use of the ceremonial law ? 
(Gal. v. 2.) What reason is given in the Epistle 
to the Hebrews for this change? (Heb. vii. 12.) 

What are meant by civil precepts l ? What is 
the doctrine of the Church of England with regard 
to the civil precepts of the Jewish law ? What do 
you mean by a commonwealth 2 ? On what grounds 
(of reason) would you infer that these precepts are 
not necessarily binding 3 ? How do you infer the 
same thing from Scripture 4 ? What command does 
St. Peter give with regard to the laws of men ? 
(1 Peter ii. 13.) To whom was his Epistle written ? 
Were the Christians to whom he wrote, living 
(probably) in many different commonwealths ? 
What is the only limit of our obedience to the laws 
of men ? 

What are meant by moral laws 5 ? How is the 
moral law summed up in Scripture ? What is the 

would therefore no longer be necessary when that purpose was 

1 Precepts relating to state polity or civil government; such as 
in the Jewish law, those relating to magistrates, contracts, the 
institution of tithes, &c. 

2 An established form of civil life. 

3 They were suited to the peculiar circumstances of the Jewish 
people; and for this very reason we may conclude that they were 
framed for that people only. 

The Apostles never recommended obedience to them. 
5 Moral laws are such as are agreeable to the moral sense, or 
natural conscience. 


assertion of tliis Article with regard to the moral law? 
Why do you infer from reason that this law is of 
perpetual obligation 1 ? What is our Lord s asser 
tion with regard to the moral law? (Matt. v. 17.) 
What direction does He give in Matthew xix. 17? 
What does St. James say of faith without obe 
dience ? (James ii. 1 7.) How will a right faith 
influence Christian men with respect to the moral 
law ? (Rom. iii. 31.) 

Evidence from Antiquity. How does [the Author 
of the Questions] speak of the agreement of the Old 
and New Testaments 2 ? What is the testimony of 
St. Ignatius ? Of St. Chrysostom 4 ? [Of St. Cyril 5 ?] 
How does St. Augustine show that the old Fathers 
did not look only for transitory promises 6 ? How 

1 The moral law is the unchangeable will of God, and is there 
fore a standing law to all nations even to the end of the world. 

2 " The Apostles have taught us as themselves did learn; first, 
the precepts of the Law, and then the Gospel ; for what else is 
the Law but the Gospel foreshowed ? what other the Gospel 
than the Law fulfilled ?" (Qucest. 101.) 

3 ST. IGNATIUS. " There is one God of the Old and New Testa 
ment, and one Mediator betwixt God and man." " All the saints 
therefore were saved in Christ, trusting in Him and expecting of 
Him." (Beverldge, vol. i. p. 305.) 

* ST. CHRYSOSTOM. " There is no difference but of names in 
the two Testaments, no opposition or contrariety." (Beteridge, 
vol. i. p. 304.) 

5 [ST. CYRIL. " Let no one then divide the Old from the New 
Testament ; let no one say that the Spirit in the former is one, 
and in the latter another ; for thus he offends against the Holy 
Ghost Himself, who together with the Father and the Son is 
honoured." (Cyril, Lect. xvi. 4.)] 

6 ST. AUGOSTINE. u But the Old Testament to them that rightly 
understand it, is a prophecy of the New Testament. And there 
fore, in that first people, the holy Patriarchs and Prophets, who 
understood what they did, or what was done by them, had then 
the hope of eternal salvation in the New Testament." (Aug. 
contra Faust. 1. 15. c. 2.) 

C 4 


does Irenaeus speak of the perpetual obligation of 
the moral law a ? 


Of the Three Creeds. 

The Three Creeds, Nicene Creed, Athanasius s Creed, 
and that which is commonly called the Apostles Creed, 
ought thoroughly to be received and believed : for 
they may be proved by most certain warrants of holy 

De tribus Symbolis. 

Symbola tria, Nicaenum, Athanasii, et quod vulgo 
Apostolorum appellatur, omnino recipienda sunt et 
credenda ; nam firmissimis scripturarum testirnoniis 
probari possunt. 

What is asserted in this Article ? Why are the 
three Creeds thoroughly to be believed? What 
do you mean by a warrant 2 ? 

What is a Creed 3 ? What necessity gave rise 
to Creeds 4 ? In whose name were converts to 
Christianity baptized ? What would therefore be 
required from them before baptism 5 ? What then 
would be the earliest form that a Creed would 
assume 6 ? What name was given to the Creed by 

1 IREN^US. "For all these things do not contain any contra 
riety or dissolution of the ancient moi al laws, but their fulness 
and extension ; as Himself sa th, Unless your righteousness exceed 
the righteousness of the Scribes and Pharisees, you shall not enter into 
the kingdom of heaven. (Iren. adv. Hcer. 1. iv. c. 13, 1.) 

2 A proof or testimony. 

3 A summary of Christian doctrine, derived from the Latin word 
credo, I believe. 

4 The necessity of having definite articles of faith, extracted 
from Scripture, and sufficiently concise to be committed to memory. 

5 Faith in the Holy Trinity. 

c It would be an amplification or expansion of the form of 


the Greek Church l ? What was signified by this 
title 2 ? "What other name did the Creed bear in 
the early ages of the Church 3 ? 

What gives authority to Creeds 4 ? What sanc 
tion must they have 5 ? Why ? In asserting that 
Holy Scripture contains all things necessary to 
salvation, does the Church leave her members to 
the unrestricted exercise of their own judgment 
with regard to the interpretation of Scripture ? 
What does she require from her members 7 ? 
What great evils have resulted from the undue 
exercise of private judgment in this matter 8 \ 

The Three Creeds. When was the council at 
Nice held 9 ? By whom was it called 10 ? For 
what purpose 11 ? How many persons were present 12 ? 
How did thev determine the rule of faith 13 ? Was 


the Creed then agreed upon, the same with that 
which has come down to us 14 ? What addition was 
made afterwards 1S ? What is meant by the expres- 

1 It was called a symbol. 

2 A watchword or token to distinguish Christians from heathens. 

5 A canon or rule of faith. 

4 Holy Scripture. " 5 That of the Church. 

6 That we may know how the Church interprets Scripture. 

7 That they put no interpretation on Scripture inconsistent 
with her own authorized formularies. 

8 False doctrine, heresy, and schism. 

9 A.D. 325. 10 Constantine. 

11 Principally for the purpose of condemning the opinions of 
Arius. 12 318. 

13 They drew up a Creed which was framed after primitive 

14 It was the same, except that it went no further than the 
words, " I believe in the Holy Ghost." 

15 The remaining clauses were added at the council of Constan 
tinople, A.D. 381, excepting that which declares that the Holy 
Ghost " proceeds from the Son," which was added still later by 
the Western Church. 

c 5 


si on " God of God 1 ?" How do you understand 
the words " Light of Light 2 ?" What passage of 
Scripture corresponds with this expression ? (Heb. 
i. 3.) What is meant by the expression " the 
Lord/ as applied to the Holy Spirit ? Where is 
the Holy Spirit said to be the " Giver of Life?" 
(Gen. i. 2. Rom..viii. 11.) 

Who was Athanasius 3 ? What is the probable 
date of the Creed which bears his name 4 ? What 
appears to have been the design of this Creed 5 ? 
What do the damnatory clauses in this Creed show 6 ? 
On what passage of Scripture are they founded ? 
(Mark xvi. 16.) What is the meaning of the word 
" incomprehensible," as used in this Creed 7 ? 

Why is the Apostles Creed so called ? Why do 
you conclude that it was not drawn up by the 
Apostles 8 ? Mention one early instance of con 
fession of faith before baptism, in the Acts of the 
Apostles. (Acts viii. 36, 37.) 

What was the design of the three Creeds 9 ? Can 
the different doctrines contained in these Creeds be 
shown to have been the received doctrines of the 
primitive Church 10 ? 

1 God proceeding from God. 

2 Light proceeding from light, as a ray from the sun. 

3 A member of the Nicene Council, afterwards Bishop of Alex 
andria . 

4 The fourth century. (See Hooker, B. v. 42.) 

5 To defend the Apostolic doctrine. 

6 The necessity of sound faith as well as sound practice. 

7 " Incapable of bounds," or " infinite." 

8 Because if so, it would have been uniform and preserved. 

9 To state, explain, and defend the Catholic faith. 

10 They can all be shown independently to have been so. 







Of Original or Birth-Sin. 

ORIGINAL Sin standeth not in the following of Adam 
(as the Pelagians do vainly talk) ; but it is the fault 
and corruption of the nature of every man, that natu 
rally is engendered of the offspring of Adam; whereby 
man is very far gone from original righteousness, and 
is of his own nature inclined to evil, so that the flesh 
lusteth always contrary to the Spirit ; and therefore in 
every person born into this world, it deserveth God s 
wrath and damnation. And this infection of nature 
doth remain, yea in them that are regenerated; whereby 
the lust of the flesh, called in the Greek plironema 
sarkos, which some do expound the wisdom, some sen 
suality, some the affection, some the desire, of the flesh, 
is not subject to the Law of God. And although there 
is no condemnation for them that believe and are bap 
tized, yet the Apostle doth confess, that concupiscence 
and lust hath of itself the nature of sin. 

De Peccato Originali. 

Peccatum originis non est (ut fabulantur Pelagiani) 
in imitatione Adami situm, sed est vitium, et depravatio 
naturae cujuslibet hominis ex Adamo naturaliter pro- 
pagati ; qua fit, ut ab originali justitia quam longissime 
distet ; ad malum sua natura propendeat ; et caro 
semper adversus Spiritum concupiscat ; unde in uno- 
quoque nascentium, iram Dei atque damnationem 
meretur. Manet etiam in renatis haec naturae depra 
vatio; qua fit ut affectus carnis, Grasce ( oorr7jua aapwc, 
(quod alii sapientiam, alii sensum, alii aflectum, alii 

C 6 


studium carnis interpretantur,) legi Dei non stibjiciatur. 
Et quanquam renatis et credentibus nulla propter 
Christum est condemnatio, peccati tamen in sese 
rationern habere concupiscentiam, fatetur Apostolus. 

What is the subject of this Article ? What is 
the meaning of the word original l 1 To what 
kind of sin is original sin commonly opposed? 
Who was Pelagius 2 ? What was the error of his 
followers with regard to original sin 3 ? How is it 
denned in this Article ? Why is it said to be the 
fault of our nature 4 ? Why the corruption 5 ? 
Why is this description limited to " every man that 
naturally is engendered of the offspring of Adam 6 ?" 
What was man s original righteousness 7 ? How 
does the Article describe his fallen state ? What 
is meant by the flesh 8 ? Who are meant by 
"them that are regenerated 9 ?" How are the 
Greek words, quoted in this Article, translated in 
the English Bible 10 ? What is concupiscence " ? 

What are the propositions contained in this 
Article 12 ? 

1 That which was in the beginning. 

2 A Welshman who lived in the beginning of the 5th century, 
and held many dangerous opinions. 

3 They held that mankind are not born sinners ; and that Adam 
hurt his posterity only by giving them so bad an example, and not 
by propagating his sin to them. 4 Because we are guilty of it. 

5 Because we are degenerated by it. 

c That Christ might be excluded. 

7 The image of God in his soul. 8 Man in his natural state. 

Those who are baptized. The words regenerated and baptised 
are both translated from the word "renatis" in the Latin. 

10 To be carnally minded. ll Irregular and unlawful desire. 

12 (1) That our nature is corrupt. (2) That this corruption 
is derived from our first parents. (3) That it deserves wrath. 
(4) That this infection remains after baptism. (5) That it is not 
then liable to condemnation. 


Do infants, as well as adults, require a Mediator ? 
What follows from hence 1 ? Repeat Genesis viii. 
21. What is the reason assigned in this passage 
why God should not again destroy the world ? Re 
peat Gralatians v. 1 7. What do you mean by the 
flesh ? How does St. Paul describe " them that 
are after the flesh?" (Rom. viii. 5.) What strong- 
internal evidence does every man possess that his 
nature is corrupt 2 ? 

We see a similarity of nature in animals. Whence 
is this derived ? If Adam had begotten a son 
before he fell, what would have been the original 
state of that son 3 ? In what state was Adam 
when he begot children 4 ? What was the conse 
quence to them 5 ? How is this expressed in 
Genesis v. 3 ? In what sense does St. Paul affirm 
that Levi might be said to have paid tithes to 
Melchizedec ? (Heb. vii. 9, 10.) In whose loins 
was the whole human nature when Adam fell ? 
What follows from hence 6 ? Repeat 1 Cor. xv. 22. 
How does David attest this truth ? (Psalm li. 5.) 
How is it expressed by Job ? (xiv. 4.) Repeat 
Psalm Iviii. 3. Why do you infer that this applies 
to all ? (Romans iii. 23.) 

Repeat Romans v. 12 19. Why has death 
passed upon all men ? In whom have all men 
sinned ? What does sin deserve ? What then do 

1 That they have sin in them to be remitted. 

2 Evil passions working in his mind. 

3 He would have been formed like his father, in the image of 
God. 4 Corrupt and mortal. 

5 They were born into the world corrupt and mortal. 

6 The whole human nature fell in him. 


all men deserve ? What is this sin called in the 
passage just quoted 1 ? What is meant by the word 
offence in this passage 2 ? 

Is original sin removed by baptism 3 ? Repeat 
Galatians v. 1 7. What was the condition of the 
persons to whom these words were written ? Repeat 
1 St. Peter ii. 11.* Is this charge given to baptized 
persons? Repeat James i. 14. Does this apply 
to Christians ? Show from St. James the difference 
between original and actual sin * ? 

What is the passage quoted in the latter part of 
this Article ? (Rom. viii. 1.) 

Evidence from Antiquity. Was the doctrine of 
original sin the belief of the early Church 5 ? What 
is the testimony of Clement of Rome 6 ? Of Cle 
ment of Alexandria 7 ? Of Cyprian 8 ? 

1 An offence. 2 The act of sinning. 

3 No. Its guilt is removed, so that children who die before 
they are old enough to be accountable are thereby saved ; but if 
they grow up, the inclination to sin remains, which they have 
grace given to them to resist. 

4 Original sin is the lust within us which " draws us away and 
entices us." Actual sin is " lust having conceived and brought 
forth sin." (James i. 14, 15.) 

5 The term original sin was not adopted till the doctrine was 
questioned in the 5th century. The doctrine however has always 
been that of the Catholic Church. 

6 CLEMENT OF ROME. " Moreover it is thus also written con 
cerning Job, Job was just, without blame, upright, one that 
feared God, and shunned all evil ; but the same person accusing 
himself savs, There is no one free from pollution, even though 
his life be but one day long. (S. Clem, ad Corinth, c. 17-) 

7 CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA. He speaks of our being " by 
nature totally alienated from God." (Clem. Alex. Strom, ii. 20.) 

8 CYPRIAN. " There were before Christ also famous men, pro 
phets and priests ; but being conceived and born in sin, they 
wanted neither original nor personal guilt." (Cyp. de jejunio et 
tentat. [quoted by Bexeridge, vol. i. p. 364.]) 



Of Free- Will 

The condition of Man after the fall of Adam is such, 
that he cannot turn and prepare himself, by his own 
natural strength and good works, to faith, and calling 
upon God : Wherefore we have no power to do good 
works pleasant and acceptable to God, without the 
grace of God by Christ preventing us, that we may have 
a good will, and working with us when we have that 
good will. 

De Libero Arbitrio. 

Ea est hominis post lapsum Adae conditio, ut sese 
natural ibus suis viribus, et bonis operibus, ad fidem 
et invocationem Dei convertere et praeparare non 
possit. Quare absque gratia Dei (quae per Christum 
est) nos praeveniente, ut velimus, et cooperante, dum 
volumus, ad pietatis opera facienda, quae Deo grata 
sunt et accepta, nihil valemus. 

What was the state of man s will before the fall 1 ? 
Was this freedom entirely lost when man fell from 
God 2 ? What then does this Article assert to be 
the condition of man since the fall ? What is 
meant by " faith, and calling upon God 3 ?" Good 
works are twice spoken of in this Article ; to what 
condition of man do they refer when first men 
tioned 4 ? To what afterwards 5 ? Repeat the latter 
part of this Article. What are the two points to 
be proved 6 ? 

1 It was absolutely free to choose the good and refuse the evil. 

2 It became corrupted and degenerated. 

3 Christianity. 4 His unregeuerated state. 

5 His state us a baptized Christian. 

6 (1) The necessity of grace preventing us, and (2) the 
necessity of grace working with us. 


In what sense is the word preventing used in 
this Article 1 ? Is the necessity of preventing grace 
declared in the Old Testament ? How does David 
show its necessity? (Psalm li. 10.) How is this 
truth asserted by our Saviour ? (John xv. 5, last 
clause.} Repeat John vi. 44. What is meant by 
the expression drawing in this passage 2 ? How 
was it that Lydia attended to the things spoken of 
by St. Paul ? (Acts xvi. 14.) How does St. Paul 
describe the method of salvation ? (Ephes. ii. 8, 9.) 

Is man a responsible being ? By what criterion 
is he to be judged hereafter 3 ? Would it consist 
with God s moral government to judge men here 
after for works over which they have had no con 
trol ? What was the charge which Joshua was 
directed to give to the Israelites? (Josh. xxiv. 15.) 
What choice did they then make ? (Josh. xxiv. 22.) 
Repeat our Saviour s words (Luke xiii. 24). What 
is the meaning of the word strive * 1 What is St. 
Paul s advice to the Philippians? (i. 12, last 
clause.) What reason does he give ? (verse 13.) 
What passage in the Article do these two verses 
illustrate ? What motives are employed in Scrip 
ture to urge men to holiness 5 ? What do these 
various motives imply 6 ? Is the grace of God 
irresistible ? What do you mean by irresistible ? 

1 Going before. Inclining. 

2 Persuading by moral means, and fit motives. 

3 By his works. 

4 The Greek word is, aywvi&oOt ; " use every exertion ;" "be 
in an agony. " 5 Exhortations, promises, threatenings, &c. 

The necessity for our own exertions. 


What is St. Paul s exhortation to the Corinthians ? 
(2 Cor. vi. 1 .) If men receive the grace of God in 
vain, how is this to be accounted for l ? 

Evidence from Antiquity. What was the error 
of the Pelagians with regard to the subject of this 
Article 2 ? When controversy arose upon this 
point, what was the opposite error into which men 
fell 3 ? What is the testimony of Irenseus with 
regard to the insufficiency of man 4 ? Of St. 
Augustine 5 ? How does Clement of Alexandria 
attest the necessity of human exertion 6 ? 


Of the Justification of Man. 

We are accounted righteous before God, only for the 
merit of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ by Faith, 
and not for our own works or deservings : Wherefore, 
that we are justified by Faith only, is a most wholesome 
Doctrine, and very full of comfort, as more largely 
is expressed in the Homily of Justification. 

1 They will not co-operate with God. 

2 They asserted that men were able by their own natural strength 
to turn to God. 

3 They denied the free agency of man. 

IRENJSUS. " No man who does not partake of the blessing 
and assistance of the Lord, can procure to himself the means of 
salvation." (Iren. adv. Hcer. 1. iv. c. 13.) 

ST. AUGUSTINE. " As none can begin a good work without 
the Lord, so none can perfect it without the Lord." (Auq. cont. 

5 CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA." God favours and co-operates 
with willing minds." Clem. Alex. Quis dives salvetur ? c. 21.) 


De Hominis Justifieatione. 

Tantum propter meritum Domini ac Servatoris nostri 
Jesu Christi, per fidem, non propter opera et rnerita 
nostra, justi coram Deo reputamur. Quare sola fide 
nos justificari doctrina est saluberrima, et consolationis 
plenissitna, ut in homilia de Justifieatione Hominis 
f usius explicatur. 

What is the subject of this Article ? What do 
you mean by justification 1 ? On account of what 
are we justified 2 ? By what means do we apply 
that merit to ourselves 3 ? How is this doctrine 
expressed in the Communion Service 4 ? Why is 
it a wholesome doctrine 5 ? Why is it full of com 
fort 6 ? What is the Homily referred to at the 
close of this Article 7 ? 

What are the three points asserted in this 
Article 8 ? 

Repeat Romans iii. 28. What are here excluded 
from being the means of our justification ? How 
is this doctrine repeated in another Epistle ? (Gal. 
ii. 16.) Repeat Ephes. ii. 8, 9. What is the 
meaning of the words "ye are saved in this 
passage 9 ? 

1 The being accounted righteous. 

2 The merit of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 

3 By faith. 

4 " Humbly beseeching thee to grant, that by the merits and 
death of thy Son Jesus Christ, and through faith in his blood, we 
and all thy whole Church may obtain remission of our sins," &c. 
(Post Communion Service.) 

5 Because it humbles pride. 

6 Because it prevents despair. 

7 That of the Salvation of all mankind. 

8 (1) We are not justified on account of our own works ; (2) 
but on account of the merit of Christ ; (2) and this benefit is 
communicated to us through faith. 

tf Ye are put into a state of salvation. 


Repeat Romans iii. ^4- : 6. What is a propiti 
ation l ? What then is the ground of our justifi 
cation ? What do you mean by being justified 
freely 2 ? 


Repeat Romans v. 1. Repeat Gal. ii. 1 6. 

When St. Paul declares that we are accounted 
righteous by faith only, does he mean that a mere 
nominal faith would be sufficient ? Show the insuffi 
ciency of a mere nominal faith from his own state 
ment in another passage ? (Romans ii. 1 3.) What 
does St. James say of faith without works ? (St. 
James ii. 20.) What was the particular error 
against which St. Paul wrote in his Epistle to the 
Galatians 3 ? What was the opposite error against 
which St. James appears to have written * ? Is 
there any inconsistency between them ? For ex 
ample ; By means of what was the thief on the 
cross justified ? What proof did he give of his 
repentance and faith ? What must he have done 
had he lived ? 

Evidence from Antiquity. Was the doctrine of 
this Article that of the early Christians? What is the 
testimony of Clement of Rome 5 ? Of Polycarp 6 ? 

1 An atonement. A means of reconciliation. 
1 Gratuitously ; without being earned. 
3 That of seeking justification by the works of the law. 
That of supposing that faith alone was sufficient. 

5 CLEMENT. " We are not justified by ourselves, neither by our 
own wisdom, or knowledge, or piety, or works that we have done 
in the holiness of our hearts ; but by that faith by which God 
Almighty has justified all men from the beginning." (Clem. Ep. ad 
Corinth, c. 32.) 

6 POLYCARP. " Ye are saved by grace, not by works, but by 
the will of God, through Jesus Christ." (S. Polycarp. ad Phil. 1 .) 


Of Good Works. 

Albeit that Good Works, which are the fruits of 
Faith, and follow after Justification, cannot put away 
our sins, and endure the severity of God s Judgment ; 
yet are they pleasing and acceptable to God in Christ, 
and do spring out necessarily of a true and lively faith ; 
insomuch that by them a lively faith may be as evi 
dently known as a tree discerned by the fruit. 

De Bonis Operibus. 

Bona opera, quae sunt fructus fidei, et justificatos 
sequuntur, quanquam peccata nostra expiare, et divini 
judicii severitatem ferre non possunt ; Deo tamen 
grata sunt, et accepta in Christo, atque ex vera et 
viva fide necessario profluunt, ut plane ex illis aeque 
fides viva cognosci possit, atque arbor ex fructu 

What is the history of this Article ? Against 
what two errors does it appear to be directed 2 ? 
What are the propositions contained in it 3 ? 

What do you mean when you say that good 
works cannot put away sins 4 ? Why cannot they 
endure the severity of God s judgment 5 ? How 
does Isaiah describe the righteousness of man ? 

1 It did not exist in iho^e of Edward VI. 1552 ; but was added 
in 1562. 

2 That of the Romanists, who hold that good works are meri 
torious ; and that of the Antinomians and others, who hold that 
faith only is sufficient. 

3 (1) That good works cannot put away sin, or endure the 
severity of God s judgment ; (2) That they are nevertheless 
pleasing ; (3) They are pleasing through Christ s merits ; 
(4) They spring necessarily from a lively faith. 

4 They cannot expiate them. 

5 Because they are not perfect. 


(Ixiv. 6.) How is the same truth asserted by Job ? 
(ix. 30, 31.) By the Psalmist ? (cxxx. 3.) By 
St. James ? (James iii. 2.) 

On what grounds of reason might we infer that 
good works are pleasing to God l ? What exhort 
ation does Christ give with regard to good works ? 
(Matt. v. 16.) If God is glorified, what may we 
conclude 2 ? Whose workmanship does St. Paul 
declare Christians to be ? (Ephes. ii. 10.) For 
what purpose are they created in Christ Jesus ? 
What did St. Paul desire Titus to "affirm con 
stantly V (Titus iii. 8.) How are Christians to 
please the Lord ? (Coloss. i. 10.) 

It appears then that good works have no merit, 
and cannot endure the Divine scrutiny ; but they 
are nevertheless pleasing to God. Through whom 
are they pleasing ? In whom are Christians 
created unto good works ? (Ephes. ii. 10.) When 
are they thus created 3 ? By virtue of what then 
are their good works acceptable to God * ? In 
whose name does St. Paul admonish the Colossians 
to do all things ? (iii. 17.) 

From what do these good works necessarily 
spring ? From what kind of faith ? To what 
faith is this opposed 5 ? How is the goodness of 
a tree known ? How is the nature of a Christian s 
faith known ? By what does St. Paul say faith 

Because God commands them to be done, and requires them 
as necessary to salvation. 

That He is pleased. 3 In their baptism. 

By virtue of their admission into the Christian covenant. 
5 A dead or heartless faith. 


worketli ? (Gal. v. 6.) What does St. John say 
of him who says he loves God, and keeps not his 
commandments ? (1 John ii. 4.) 

Evidence from Antiquity. In what terms does 
St. Cyril speak of the imperfection of good works 1 ? 
How does Justin Martyr show the necessity of 
good works 2 ? How docs St. Chrysostom connect 
faith and good works 3 ? 


Of Works before Justification. 

Works done before the grace of Christ, and the 
inspiration of his Spirit, are not pleasant to God, for 
asmuch as they spring not of faith in Jesus Christ, 
neither do they make men meet to receive grace, or 
(as the School authors say) deserve grace of congruity : 
yea, rather, for that they are not done as God hath 
willed and commanded them to be done, we doubt not 
but they have the nature of sin. 

De Operibus ante Justificationem. 

Opera quae fiunt ante gratiam Christi et Spiritus 
ejus afflatum, cum ex fide Jesu Christi non prodeant, 
minime Deo grata sunt, neque gratiam (ut multi vocant) 
de congruo merentur. Immo cum non sunt facta ut 
Deus ilia fieri voluit et prsecepit, peccati rationem 
habere non dubitamus. 

1 CYRIL. " That which seems to be done well by us, cannot 
escape reprehension and blame, if it be narrowly searched into." 

2 JUSTIN MARTYR. "Christ hath declared that not they who 
only profess his religion, but they who do the works which He hath 
commanded them, shall be saved." (Just. Mart. Apol. i. c. 16.) 

3 ST. CHRYSOSTOM. " As soon as ever thou hast believed, thou 
wilt be adorned also with good works." (Chrysost. Sermo de lege 


What is the subject of this Article ? What state 
or condition of man does it refer to ? What does 
it affirm with regard to "works done before the 
grace of Christ, and the inspiration of his Spirit 1 ? J 
Why are they not pleasing to God ? Who say 
that such works deserve grace of congruity ? Who 
were the School authors 2 ? What did they mean 
by grace of congruity 3 ? 

On what grounds of reason would you infer 
that works before justification are not pleasant to 
Grod 4 ? What is the natural state of man since 
the fall? What follows from hence 5 ? How does 
St. Paul speak of the plan of salvation ? (Titus 
iii. 4, 5.) What does he exclude from having any 
merit to obtain justification ? By what does he 
say that Christians are saved ? (Ephes. ii. 8.) 
Were those persons actually saved at that time ? 
What then ? By what then were they put into a 
state of justification? 

We have seen that works performed before the 

1 (1) That they are not pleasant to God ; (2) That they do 
not deserve grace ; (3) That they have the nature of sin. 

2 Students in Divinity, who appeared in the eleventh century, 
and strove to explain Scripture on philosophical principles. 

3 Grace of congruity (gratiam de congruo) means grace which 
it is fair and equitable that a man should receive. The School 
authors devised a theory that by a certain meritorious meetness, 
a priori, for the reception of God s grace, the party claimed it 
de congruo, as that which it was fitting he should receive ; and that 
having once received it, he might then claim its further extension 
as a right, de condigno. 

4 All actions are considered by the Divine Being with reference 
to their motives, and unless these be good, the action, however 
outwardly good, cannot be pleasant to God. 

5 That his works in his natural state must be corrupt. 


grace of Christ are not pleasant to God, and do 
not deserve grace. What is affirmed further with 
regard to them ? Repeat 1 John v. 1 7. Repeat 
Acts xvii. 30. What was God pleased to overlook ? 
What do you infer from hence 1 ? What does our 
Lord say is tfce work of God ? (John vi. 29.) 
From what principle then must every work proceed 
in order that it may be pleasing to God 2 ? Whose 
gift is faith ? 

Evidence from Antiquity. Was the doctrine of 
this Article that of the early Church ? In what 
terms does St. Jerome speak of works before justi 
fication 3 ? St. Chrysostom 4 ? Gregory 5 ? 

1 That this ignorance was sinful, though not punished. 

2 From the principle of faith. 

3 ST. JEROME. " Let us pronounce our sentence against those 
who do not believe in Christ, and yet think themselves valiant, and 
wise, and temperate, and just, that they may know that there is 
none can live without Christ, without whom all virtue lies in vice." 
(Hieron. in Gal. c. 3.) 

4 ST. CHRYSOSTOM. " You shall find many which have not the 
true faith, and be not of the flock of Christ, and yet as itappeareth 
they flourish in good works of mercy ; you shall find them full of 
pity, compassion, and given to justice ; and yet for all that they 
have no fruit of their works, because the chief work lacketh." 
{Chrysost. Sermo de fide, lege, et Spiritu Sancto.) 

5 GREGORY. " If faith be not first begotten in our hearts, all 
the other things cannot be good, though they may seem good." 
(Gregor. Moral. 1. 2. [quoted by Beveridge, vol. ii. p. 42.]) 



Of Works of Supererogation. 

Voluntary Works besides, over and above, God s 
Commandments, which they call Works of Supereroga 
tion, cannot be taught without arrogancy and impiety : 
for by them men do declare, that they do not only 
render unto God as much as they are bound to do, but 
that they do more for his sake, than of bounden duty is 
required : whereas Christ saith plainly, When ye have 
done all that are commanded to you, say, We are 
unprofitable servants. 

De Operibus Super erogationis. 

Opera quse supererogationis appellant, non possunt 
sine arrogantia et impietate prsedicari. Nam illis de 
clarant homines, non tantum se Deo reddere quse 
tenentur, sed plus in ejus gratiam facere quam debe- 
rent ; cum aperte Christus dicat, Cum feceritis omnia 
quaecumque prsecepta sunt vobis, dicite, Servi inutiles 

Against what erroneous doctrine is this Article 
directed ? What is the meaning of the word super 
erogation l ? How is this doctrine applied by the 
Church of Rome 2 ? Why is it an arrogant doc 
trine 3 ? Why is it impious 4 ? 

What are the two propositions denied in this 

1 The performance of more than duty requires. It is thus de 
rived ; from rogo, to carry a law ; erogo, to make out an order 
for money from the treasury, or to pay ; super erogo, to pay over 
and above what is due. 

2 It is asserted that Christ did and suffered more than was 
necessary, and that the saints have done the same ; and that this 
surplus of merit is placed at the pope s disposal, to dispense for 
remission from purgatory, by indulgences. 

Because it exalts human merit. 
4 Because it takes away from the honour of Christ. 



Article l ? Quote a passage from Scripture to dis 
prove the first ? (Luke xvii. 10.) What passage 
disproves the second ? (Psalm xlix. 7.) 

By what method of reasoning has it been 
attempted to establish this error 2 ? Is there any 
ground for such distinction in Scripture ? How 
much obedience % do the precepts of the Bible re 
quire? How is the moral law summed up by 
Christ? For whose use was the Lord s prayer 
designed ? What do we pray to be forgiven in 
that prayer ? What are our sins called in the 
Lord s prayer as recorded by St. Matthew 3 ? But 
if Christians must pray daily for forgiveness of 
their debts, can they have any surplus merit ? When 
Christ required the young man to sell all that he 
had, was it optional with him whether he would 
do so or not ? Was that charge a precept, or only a 
counsel ? What moral evil results from this doc 
trine 4 ? 

Does it appear from Scripture that there will be 
differences of rewards hereafter 5 ? Was this the 

1 (1) That a man is able to do more than is necessary for his 
own salvation ; (2) That he is able to transfer the merit of the 
surplus to others. 

2 By making a distinction between the precepts and the counsels 
of religion ; the former being asserted to be necessary, and the 
latter only voluntary. 

3 Debts. 

4 It tends to damp our ardour in the pursuit of holiness, from 
the idea that we may have already gained merit enough, and there 
fore need strive no more. 

5 It is expressly declared that God will reward every one 
according to his works. The same thing is also implied in the 
parable of the pounds, and in 1 Cor. xv. 41, 42. 


view of the early Christians 1 ? Does this doctrine 
give any countenance to that of Supererogation 2 ? 
Evidence from Antiquity. When was the doc 
trine of Works of Supererogation first held 3 ? Is 
the testimony of the early Church decisive against 
it ? What is the language of St. Basil 4 ? St. 
Cyprian 5 ? St. Augustine 6 ? 


Of Christ alone without Sin. 

Christ in the truth of our nature was made like unto 
us in all things, sin only except, from which he was 
clearly void, both in his flesh, and in his spirit. He 
came to be the Lamb without spot, who, by sacrifice of 
himself once made, should take away the sins of the 
world ; and sin, as Saint John saith, was not in him. 
But all we the rest, although baptized, and born again 
in Christ, yet offend in many things ; and if we say we 
have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not 
in us. 

1 " It has been the ancient and constant tradition of the Church, 
testified by the unanimous consent of all the Fathers." (Jos. Mcde, 
Sermon on Matt. x. 41.) 

2 None whatever, because the reward of the greatest saint is 
a reward of grace, and not of debt. 

3 In the 12th century. 

4 St. BASIL. " He that cannot make satisfaction, or propitiate 
God for his own sins, how can he do it for another ?" (Basil in 
Psalm 48.) 

5 ST. CYPRFAN. " We ought not to glory in any thing, since 
nothing is our own." (Cyprian. Testim. 1. iii. c. 4.) 

6 ST. AUGUSTINE. "Brethren may die for brethren, yet the 
blood of any martyr is not poured out for the forgiveness and 
remission of their brethren s sins, as He did for us." (Aug. in Joh. 
Tract 84.) 

D 2 


De Christo, qui solus est sine peccato. 

Christus in nostrae naturae veritate, per omnia similis 
factus est nobis, excepto peccato, a quo prorsus erat 
immunis, turn in carne, turn in spiritu. Venit ut agnus, 
absque macula, qui mundi peccata per immolationem 
sui semel factam toHeret, et peccatum (ut inquit Johannes) 
in eo non erat ; sed nos reliqui etiam baptizati, et in 
Christo regenerati, in multis tamen offendimus omnes. 
Et si dixerimus, quod peccatum non habemus, nos 
ipsos seducimus, et veritas in nobis non est. 

What is the subject of this Article ? What do 
you mean by " the truth of our nature 1 ?" What 
is meant by being " clearly void 2 V What kind of 
sin is here intended 3 ? Who are meant by "all we 
the rest 4 ?" 

There are two assertions in this Article. What 
are they 5 ? 

The sinlessness of Christ. For what purpose 
did Christ come into the world ? Supposing that 
Christ had been guilty of any sin, what would He 
have required 6 ? Why was Christ miraculously 
conceived 7 ? In what likeness did God send his 
own Son ? (Rom. viii. 3.) For what purpose ? 
Could Christ have condemned sin, if he had 
been sent in sinful flesh ? For what purpose did 
the Father make Him to be sin for us ? (2 Cor. 

1 The reality or verity of our nature. " Very man." 

2 Entirely, altogether free. The Latin is prorsus. 

3 All sin, original and actual. 

4 All mankind ; as described in Article IX. 

5 (1) The sinlessness of Christ, and (2) the sinfulness of man 
after regeneration. 

6 A Redeemer. 7 That He might be free from sin. 



v. 21.) What do you mean by "being made sin 
in this passage l ? What was it necessary that 
Christ should be, in order that we might be made 
"the righteousness of God in Him? J What was 
the Paschal Lamb ? Why was it required to be 
without blemish ? What do you mean by a type ? 
How do you know that the Paschal Lamb was a 
type of Christ 2 ? What is the testimony of St. Peter 
to this point ? (1 Pet. i. 19.) What is our Lord s 
own testimony as to his own sinlessness ? (John 
viii. 46.) How is this truth asserted by St. John ? 
(1 John iii. 5.) 

This Article asserts that Christ was entirely free 
from sin, both in his flesh and in his spirit. Is 
this distinction observed in Scripture ? (2 Cor. 
vii. 1.) What are sins of the flesh 3 ? What does 
St. Paul say of fornication ? (1 Cor. vi. 18.) What 
do you mean by being peccable * ? Was Christ 
peccable 5 ? 

The sinfulness of man after regeneration. From 
the Old Testament. How does Solomon speak of 
the tendency of man to sin ? (1 Kings viii. 46.) 
How is Abraham described ? (2 Chron. xx. 7.) Did 
Abraham offend notwithstanding ? (Genesis xx.) 
What was the sin of Moses ? 

1 A sin offering; an atonement for sin. 

2 John i. 29. 

3 Sins in which the body is especially concerned, as intempe 
rance, lust, &c. Sins of the spirit are those in which the mind is 
especially concerned, as pride, revenge, &c. 

4 Liable to sin. 

No; He was entirely free from all sin, and all tendency to 
sin, either of body or mind. 

D 3 


From the New Testament. What is the testi 
mony of St. James to this point ? (James iii. 2.) 
Of St. John ? (1 John i. 8.) How does St. Paul 
confess his sinfulness ? (1 Tim. i. 15.) Why did St. 
Paul withstand St. Peter to his face at Antioch ? 
(Gal. ii. 11.) What is the character given in St. 
Luke of Zacharias and his wife ? (Luke i. 6.) Show 
from what follows that Zacharias was not entirely 
free from sin ! ? (verse 20.) What petition in the 
Lord s prayer implies the tendency of man to sin ? 

Some persons have supposed that those who are 
regenerate are entirely free from sin. On what 
passage of Scripture has this opinion been founded ? 
(1 John iii. 9.) How do you understand the ex 
pression " he cannot sin 2 V Why do you conclude 
that this is St. John s meaning 3 ? Other persons 
have supposed that the regenerate do sin, but that 
it is no sin in them. On what Scripture passage 
is this error built? (Rom. viii. 1.) How is the 
statement in the first clause of this text qualified 
in the second ? Whence have these and similar 
errors arisen 4 ? 

Evidence from Antiquity. What is the testi 
mony of Justin Martyr to the sinlessness of Christ 5 ? 

He disbelieved the message of the angel, and was punished 
with dumbness. 

2 He cannot sin wilfully and habitually. 

3 Because the same Apostle says (i. 8), " If we say that we 
have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us." 

4 From interpreting too absolutely particular passages, instead 
of comparing spiritual things with spiritual. 

5 JUSTIN MARTYR. "That only unreprovable just man." 
(Just. Dialog, cum Tryph.) 


Of Cyril of Alexandria ? Of Augustine 2 ? How 
does Clement of Alexandria speak of the sinfulness 
of man 3 ? 


Of Sin after Baptism. 

Not every deadly sin willingly committed after 
Baptism is sin against the Holy Ghost, and unpardon 
able. Wherefore the grant of repentance is not to be 
denied to such as fall into sin after Baptism. After 
we have received the Holy Ghost, we may depart from 
grace given, and fall into sin, and by the grace of 
God we may arise again, and amend our lives. And 
therefore they are to be condemned, which say, they 
can no more sin as long as they live here, or deny the 
place of forgiveness to such as truly repent. 

De Peccato post Baptismum. 

Non omne peccatum mortale post Baptismum volun- 
tarie perpetratum est peccatum in Spiritum Sanctum, 
et irremissibile. Proinde lapsis a Baptismo in peccata, 
locus pcenitentise non est negandus. Post acceptum 
Spiritum Sanctum possumus a gratia data recedere 
atque peccare, denuoque per gratiam Dei resurgere ac 

1 CYRIL. " Christ was the first and the only man upon earth 
that did not commit sin, neither was guile found in his mouth." 
(Cyril, de recta fide.) 

* AUGUSTINE. " Perhaps it is not without cause, that when we 
often find in Scripture that men are said to be without com 
plaint, we can find none said to he without sin, but that one alone 
of whom it is openly said, Him who did not know sin." (Aug. de 
nat. et <jrat.) 

3 CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA. "The Word alone is without sin; 
for to sin is natural and common to all." (Clem. Alex. Pcedagog. 
1. 3. c. ult.) 

D 4 



resipiscere ; ideoque illi damnandi sunt qui se, quamdiu 
hie vivant, amplius non posse peccare affirmant, aut 
vere resipiscentibus veniae locum denegant. 

What is the subject of this Article ? What are 
meant by deadly sins ? What may we infer from 
the expression < r not every deadly sin " is unpar 
donable 2 ? What is the diiference between the 
assertion of this Article, and that of the last, with 
regard to the tendency of man to sin 3 ? What is 
meant by the place of forgiveness 4 ? 

There are three assertions in this Article 

(1) That man may fall from grace after Baptism. 

(2) That he cannot be assured that he shall not 

(3) That he may rise again. 

Man may fall from grace after Baptism. What 
may we infer from the numerous exhortations, &c. 
of Scripture to perseverance 5 ? How does St. 
Paul speak of his liability to fall ? (1 Cor. ix. 27.) 
In the parable of the seed sown, some fell upon 
the rocky ground ; what became of it after it had 
sprung up ? What do you infer ? Against what 

In one sense every sin is deadly ; but deadly sins here mean 
known and deliberate sins, as opposed to sins of ignorance or 

That a sin may be a deadly sin, and yet not the sin against 
I Holy Ghost, the only one which is declared to be unpardonable. 
The last Article asserted this that through the remaining sin- 
Julness of nature we must commit sin after baptism ,- this asserts 
that a man may commit sin after baptism, and yet not be finally lost 
The Latin version is locus Venice, in allusion to the ancient 
practice of assigning a particular place in the Church to penitents- 
it means the grant of forgiveness. 
5 Our liability to fall. 


does St. Paul caution the Corinthian Christians in 
1 Cor. viii. 9 ? What does he say might be the 
result of their conduct? (verse II.) 1 On what 
condition is it asserted that Christians are the 
house of Christ ? (Heb. iii. 6.) Repeat Heb. vi. 
4 6. What does St. Paul affirm might happen 
to the enlightened ? In whom has God no plea 
sure? (Heb. x. 39.) What was the Divine 
threatening to the Church at Ephesus ? (Rev. ii. 5.) 
What is meant by the candlestick ? What do you 
infer 2 ? Show that this is the view of the Church 
in her services 3 . 

Some persons have supposed that man cannot 
fall from grace given. What is this opinion 
called 4 ? Supposing a Christian falls after grace 
has been given to him, does this imply any change- 
ableness on the part of God? Where does the 
fault lie? Repeat Matthew xxiv. 24. What is 
meant by the expression " if it were possible 5 ?" 
Christ prayed for his disciples. Do these prayers 
imply the certainty of their continuing in grace? 
For whom did our Lord pray that his faith might 
not fail ? (Luke xxii. 32.) Did St. Peter s faith 

1 The Greek word is aTroXttrat ; and the passage therefore 
implies that a brother Christian might bejffaafty lost. 

2 That the whole Church of Ephesus might fall. 

3 Burial Service. " Suffer us not at our last hour for any pains 
of death to fall from thee." Collect for Second Sunday in Advent 
" That we may embrace and ever hold fast the blessed hope of 
everlasting life." Collect for grace " Grant that this day w 

into no sin." 

* Final perseverance. 

5 That they would use every endeavour (as iii Acts xx. 16). 

D 5 


fail afterwards ? (verse 57.) Supposing that those 
who have received grace were secure against 
falling, what alteration would be made in their 
present condition * ? What do you mean by 
a state of probation? Repeat Romans xi. 29- 
What are the -gifts and calling of God, of 
which St. Paul speaks 2 ? Repeat 2 Cor. i. 22. 
What do you understand by a seal 3 ? What by an 
earnest*? What is the nature of the seal and 
earnest given to Christians 5 ? When is it given 
to them 6 ? How may it be forfeited? (1 Thess. 
v. 1 9.) To what are Christians begotten again ? 

t O O 

(1 Peter i. 3.) Will this hope brighten in the 
minds of true Christians as they advance in 
grace 7 ? 

A Christian cannot be assured that he shall not 
fall so as to lose heaven. The angels were placed 
in a state of probation. Did they fall ? (Jude, verse 
6.) Did the Jews fall ? What may be inferred with 
regard to Christians? (1 Cor. x. 12.) What is St. 
Paul s caution to the Roman Christians ? (Rom. 
xi. 20.) How does he exhort the Philippians to 
work out their salvation ? Why with " fear and 

They would no longer be in a state of probation. 

2 His choice of the Jewish nation to be his people, owing to his 
love for them, which was still continued. 

3 A seal is that which testifies a contract, which is void if both 
parties do not keep it. 

4 An earnest is money given as a pledge for the rest of the price, 
which may be forfeited. 

5 The gift of the Holy Ghost. 6 In their baptism. 

7 The hope of a true Christian will certainly increase. St. Paul 
speaks with full assurance of hope as the time of his departure 
draws nigh. It is unlikely that a Christian who has long perse 
vered will fall. 


trembling 1 ?" Repeat Heb. xii. 28. What is the 
Greek word translated " godly fear 2 ?" How does 
St. Peter exhort us to pass the time of our sojourn 
ing here? (1 Peter i. 17.) Show that the fear of 
falling is designed to preserve from falling. (Jer. 
xxxii. 40.) How were the Hebrews to arrive at a 
full assurance of hope ? (Heb. vi. 1 2.) Repeat Heb. 
x. 22. How is the expression " full assurance 
of faith" qualified in the next verse ? (ver. 23.) 
What is meant by the expression full assurance, 
in these passages 3 ? 

A Christian having fallen may rise again. 
What is the condition on which forgiveness is 


promised by Christ? (Matt. vi. 14.) What is 
the design of the parable of the prodigal son 4 ? 
What privilege did our Lord convey to his Apostles 
in John xx. 23 ? What was St. Peter s advice to 
Simon? (Acts viii. 22.) What did this advice 
imply 5 ? What was the punishment inflicted by 
St. Paul on the incestuous person 6 ? (1 Cor. v. 5.) 
What direction did St. Paul give with regard to the 
same person afterwards when he repented 7 ? (2 Cor. 

1 Because they had a work to perform which they could not 
do of themselves, and because the grace of God was not irre 

2 EvXdfitia ; which means caution, implying danger. 

3 The Greek word in this case is irXrjpoQopia. The metaphor 
is that of a vessel borne along at full sail, and does not imply 

4 To encourage sinners to repentance. 

That his sin, though great, might yet be forgiven. 

6 Excommunication. 

7 To receive him back again into the Church. 

D 6 


ii. 6, 7.) Repeat 1 John iii. 6. What kind of sin 
does the Apostle speak of 1 ? Repeat Heb. vi. 4 6. 
"What is the sin of which the Apostle speaks 2 ? 
How is this sin further described in Heb. x. 26 ? 
What were its a ravatinG: circumstances 3 ? What 

oo o 

does the Apostle say with regard to such persons ? 
How does the general tenor of Scripture require 
us to understand the term " impossible" in this 
passage 4 ? What warning is conveyed in these 
words to all Christians 5 ? What appears to have 
been the sin against the Holy Ghost 6 ? How 
may that sin be imitated 7 ? For what kind of sin 
does St. John forbid prayer to be made ? (1 John 
v. 16.) 

Evidence from Antiquity. When was the doc 
trine of final perseverance first introduced 8 ? Who 
was Novatian 9 ? How was his teaching opposed 

1 Wilful and habitual sin. 

2 Apostasy. 

3 They had tasted the heavenly gift, &c. 

4 Extremely difficult, though not beyond the reach of his grace, 
with whom all things are possible. " This impossibility," says 
Bishop Taylor, " concerns not those that return and confess Christ, 
but those that wilfully and maliciously reject this only way of sal 
vation, and never return to the confession of it again." (Bishop 
Jeremy Taylor on the effect of repentance, 4.) 

8 The extreme danger of sinning wilfully after having been 

6 Ascribing to the evil spirit what Christ did by the power of 
the Holy Ghost. 

7 By habitual resistance to the grace of God. 

8 It was not heard of till the end of the 4th century. 

9 A learned presbyter of Rome ( A.D. 250), who held that those 
who had once fallen should not again be admitted into the Church. 
His followers were called Puritans. 


by St. Cyprian l ? How does Theodoret speak of 
sin after baptism 2 ? 


Of Predestination and Election. 

Predestination to Life is the everlasting purpose of 
God, whereby (before the foundations of the world 
were laid) He hath constantly decreed by his counsel 
secret to us, to deliver from curse and damnation those 
whom He hath chosen in Christ out of mankind, and to 
bring them by Christ to everlasting salvation, as vessels 
made to honour. Wherefore, they which be endued 
with so excellent a benefit of God be called according 
to God s purpose by his Spirit working in due season : 
they through Grace obey the calling ; they be justified 
freely : they be made sons of God by adoption : they 
be made like the image of his only-begotten Son Jesus 
Christ : they walk religiously in good works, and at 
length, by God s mercy, they attain to everlasting 

As the godly consideration of Predestination, and 
our Election in Christ, is full of sweet, pleasant, and 
unspeakable comfort to godly persons, and such as feel 
in themselves the working of the Spirit of Christ, 
mortifying the works of the flesh, and their earthly 

1 ST. CYPRIAN. " But I wonder that there are some so obstinate, 
as not to think that repentance ought to be given to such as are 
fallen, or suppose that pardon should be denied to penitents, when 
it is written Remember from, whence thou art fallen, and repent, 
and do thefrst icorks. (Cyprian. Epist. ad Antouianum.) 

2 THEODORET. " But he that hath attained the gift of baptism, 
calleth God Father, as one that is inserted into the order of the 
sons of grace. These therefore are commanded to say, Forgive 
iis our debts. The wounds, therefore, that are made even after 
Baptism are curable." (See Beteridge, vol. ii. p. 73.) 


members, and drawing up their mind to high and 
heavenly things, as well because it doth greatly esta 
blish and confirm their faith of eternal salvation to be 
enjoyed through Christ, as because it doth fervently 
kindle their love towards God : So, for curious and 
carnal persons, lacking the Spirit of Christ, to have 
continually before their eyes the sentence of God s 
Predestination, is a most dangerous downfall, whereby 
the Devil doth thrust them either into desperation, or 
into wretchlessness of most unclean living, no less 
perilous than desperation. 

Furthermore, we must receive God s promises in 
h wise, as they be generally! set forth to us in holy 
Scripture : and, in our doings, that Will of God is to 
be followed, which we have expressly declared unto us 
in the Word of God. 

De Prcedestinatione et Electione. 

Praedestinatio ad vitam, est seternum Dei proposi- 
tum, quo ante jacta mundi fundamenta, suo consilio, 
nobis quidem occulto, constanter decrevit, eos quos in 
Christo elegit ex hominum genere, a maledicto et exitio 
liberare, atque (utvasa in honorem efficta) per Christum 
ad aeternam salutem adducere. Unde qui tarn prseclaro 
Dei beneficio sunt donati, illi Spiritu ejus, opportuno 
tempore operante, secundum proposition ejus vocantur, 
vocationi per gratiam parent, justificantur gratis, 
adoptantur in filios Dei, unigeniti ejus Jesu Christi 
imagini efficiuntur conformes, in bonis operibus sancte 
ambulant, et demum ex Dei misericordia pertingunt ad 
sempiternam felicitatem. 

Quemadmodum praedestinationis et electionis nostrse 
in Christo pia consideratio dulcis, suavis, et ineffabilis 
consolationis est vere piis, et his qui sentiunt in se vim 
Spiritus Christi, facta carnis, et membra, quae adhuc 
sunt super terram, mortificantem, animumque ad creles- 
tia et superna rapientem : turn quia fidem nostram de 
aeterna salute consequenda per Christum plurimum 
stabilit atque confirmat, turn quia amorem nostrum in 
Deum vehementer accendit ; ita hominibus curiosis, 


carnalibus, et Spiritu Christ! destitutes, ob oculos per- 
petuo versari prsedestinationis Dei sententiam, pernicio- 
sissimum est prsecipitium, unde illos diabolus protrudit, 
vel in desperationem, vel in seque perniciosam impu- 
rissimse vitae securitatem. Deinde, promissiones divinas 
sic amplecti oportet, ut nobis in sacris literis_gene- 
_raliter, propositae sunt ; et Dei voluntas in nostris 
actionibus ea sequenda est, quam in verbo Dei habemus 
diserte revelatam. 

What is the subject of this Article ? What is the 
literal meaning of the word "predestination 1 ?" 
Of " election 2 ?" Why are the words " to life" in 
serted 3 ? 

This Article contains the following proposi 
tions : 

(1) The meaning of predestination to life. 

(2) A description of those who are predestinated. 

(3) The comfort arising from the godly consi 
deration of this doctrine. 

(4) The danger arising from the improper use 
of it, 

(5) The duty of attending strictly to the will of 
God, as He has revealed it ; and not as our own 
imaginings may lead us to conclude it to be, or to 
conceive of it, in matters not revealed. 

What does this Article affirm "predestination 
to life" to be ? Repeat Ephes. i. 46. Repeat 
2 Tim. i. 9. Speaking then with reference to God, 

1 Determination made beforehand. 

2 Choice made according to that determination. 

3 To exclude the doctrine of reprobation. 


who are the elect l ? Show from Scripture that they 
which be endued with so excellent a benefit are 
called according to God s purpose. (Rom. viii. 
SO.) That they are justified freely. (Rom. iii. 24.) 
That they are made the sons of God by adoption. 
(Gal. iv. 6, 7.)* That they are made like the image 
of Christ. (Rom. viii. 29.) That they walk reli 
giously in good works. (Ephes. ii. 10 ; 1 Peter i. 
2.) That they attain at length by God s mercy to 
everlasting felicity. (1 Peter i. 3 5.) 

Are the marks of distinction by which these per 
sons are known, such as man can take cognizance 
of 2 ? Speaking then with reference to man, who 
are the elect 3 ? What assurance has God given of 
his favour towards such persons 4 ? If they perish 
finally, where lies the fault 5 ? How does St. Paul 


comfort the Christians at Rome under their suffer 
ings 6 ? Does he address the whole body as pre 
destinated ? What event is he speaking of in the 

1 Those (known to God alone) who either have persevered, or 
will persevere to the end, and be finally saved ; the Invisible 

2 " They who are of this society have such marks and notes of 
distinction from all others, as are not objects unto our sense ; only 
unto God who seeth their hearts, and understandeth all their secret 
cogitations, unto Him the) are clear and manifest." (Hooker, 1. iii. 


3 The whole Christian society, to every member of which eter 
nal life is offered in such a manner that he may fall from it and 
perish, yet it is his own fault if he do. This is evident from the 
Apostolical Epistles, in which the inspired writers address those 
whom they call elect and predestinated, as liable to fall. 

4 He has admitted them into the covenant of grace. 

5 The fault is their own, because they have received " the grace 
of God in vain." (2 Cor. vi. 1.) 

6 By assuring them of the certainty of the Divine promises. 
(Rom. viii. 18, &c.) 


9th chapter ? What is meant by the expression 
"Jacob have I loved/ in verse 13 ? How was the 
prophecy in the 25th verse of that chapter fulfilled 2 ? 
Eepeat Acts xiii. 48. What is meant by being " or 
dained to eternal life 3 ? Repeat Acts ii. 47. Who 
are meant by "such as should be saved 4 ?" Repeat 
1 Thess. i. 4. Does St. Paul say this of the whole 
body? When were the Thessalonian converts 
chosen ? What evidence had they already given of 
the sincerity of their faith ? (1 Thess. i. 3.) What 
exhortation is given in 1 Thess. v. 8 ? What reason 
is given in the following verse ? (ver. 9.) Does this 
reason imply the certainty of their salvation 5 ? To 
whom is the doctrine of our election in Christ 
full of comfort ? Who are meant by " godly per 
sons 6 ?" In what two respects is this doctrine full 
of comfort to such persons ? Show from Scrip 
ture that it establishes their faith. (Rom. viii. 
33 35.) Show that it kindles their love. (1 John 
iv. 19.) 

To whom is the sentence of God s predestination 
a dangerous downfall ? Who are meant by curious 

1 That it pleased God to select Jacob s posterity to be his chosen 
people, in preference to that of Esau. 

2 In the call of the Gentiles. 

3 Being disposed or prepared by grace to become Christians. 

4 The Greek is TOVQ crwojuevou, which is literally, those who 
were being saved. 

5 No: it only implies that God for his part had chosen them to 
be heirs of salvation, provided they on their part would "put on 
the breastplate of faith and love," and so make their calling and 
election sure. 

Those who by the grace of God are fulfilling the conditions of 
the Christian covenant. 


persons 1 ? By carnal persons 2 ? What do you 
mean by the expression " a downfall 3 ?" What are 
the ways in which Satan may take advantage of 
such persons * ? What do you mean by despera 
tion ? By wretchlessness 5 ? 

How are vfe to receive God s promises 6 ? What 
is the precise meaning of the word generally in this 
passage 7 ? Against what persons does this part of 
the Article appear to have been directed 8 ? What 
will of God are we to follow in our doings ? What 
is the revealed will of God ? (Isa. Iv. 7. 1 Tim. 
ii. 4. Rev. xxii. 1 7, last clause, &c.) Can this will 
be contrary to his secret will ? Why not 9 ? What 

1 Inquisitive persons. 2 Sensual persons. 

3 The Latin is prcecipitium, which shows more clearly the dan 
gerous position in which such persons are placed. 

* He may cast the inquisitive person who seeks to pry into the 
secret decrees of God, down from thence into desperation, by filling 
him with unreasonable and sinful doubts, whether he is one of 
those who in the foreknowledge of God are to be finally saved; or 
he may cast the sensual person down into utter wretchlessness, by 
leading him to forget that he who is elected to the end, is elected 
also to use the means by which that end is to be attained. 

5 The Latin is securitas ; recklessness or unconcern. " There 
are," says Honker, "that elevate too much the ordinary and imme 
diate means of life, relying wholly upon the bare conceit of that 
eternal Election, which notwithstanding includeth a subordination 
of means, without which we are not actually brought to enjoy what 
God secretly did intend ; and therefore to build upon God s elec 
tion, if we keep not ourselves to the ways which He hath appointed 
for men to walk in, is but a self-deceiving vanity." (Eccles. Pol. 
b. v. fiO.) 

See the Article. 

7 The Latin word is not plerumque, but genercditer. It might 
therefore be rendered genetically ; meaning that the promises of 
God must be received generally with a reference to the whole collec 
tive Church of the election, and not with a reference to particular 
individuals. (See Faker s Primitive Doctrine of Election, p. 390.) 

8 Against those who thought, that though by the plain will of 
God all were elected, by his secret will only some. 

9 Because God cannot contradict Himself. 


then is your duty and your wisdom with reference 
to the doctrine of your election in Christ ? (2 Peter 
i. 10.) What promise is annexed to this exhorta 
tion? (ver. 10, last clause, and ver. 11.) 

Show how the teaching of this Article corre 
sponds with other formularies of the Church of 
England ] . Was this the teaching of the primitive 
Church 2 ? 

1 In the service for Infant Baptism, the congregation is directed 
to pray that the child about to be baptized may " ever remain in 
the number of God s faithful and elect children." In the Catechism, 
the baptized person is taught to express his belief in the Holy 
Ghost who sanctifieth him, and all the elect people of God. And in 
the Burial Service there is a prayer that God will be pleased shortly 
to accomplish the number of his elect, and to hasten his kingdom. 

2 CLEMENT OF ROME. " May the all-seeing God, who has 
elected the Lord Jesus Christ and us through Him to be a peculiar 
people, gr;uit, to every soul that calleth upon his great and holy 
Name, faith, fear, peace, patience, long-suffering, temperance, 
holiness, and wisdom." (Ep. ad Corinth, i. 58.) 

IGNATIUS. " Ignatius, who is also Theophorus, to the Church 
which is in Ephesus of Asia, deserving to be ranked among the 
blessed, blessed in the greatness and fulness of God the Father, 
always predestinated before the worlds to glory," &c. (Ep. ad Eplics. 


JUSTIN MARTYR. "We Christians are no mere contemptible 
people ; but God has also elected us, and has become manifest 
to those who enquired not after Him. Through the like calling that 
lie called Abraham, charging him to go out from the land in which 
he dwelt, through that voice he has called all of us." (Just. Dial, 
cum Tryph. Oper. p. 272.) Justin Martyr says also in another 
passage; "But you will admit, when you hear the words of the 
prophet David, that God the Father of all things was to take up 
Christ to heaven after his resurrection from the dead, and there 
to keep Him, until He should have smitten down the evil spirits 
that hate Him, and till the number of good and virtuous, fore 
known to Him, should be accomplished, for whose sakes He hath 
not yet brought on the conflagration." (Apolog. i. 45.) 

CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA. " There is only one ancient and 
Catholic Church, which collects together unto the unity of one faith, 
by the will of one God, through one Lord, those already ordained, 
whom God has predestinated." (Clem. Alex. Strom.) 


What caution is necessary with regard to the 
subject of this Article 1 ? 


Of obtaining eternal Salvation only by the name of Christ. 

They also are to be had accursed that presume to 
say, That every man shall be saved by the Law or Sect 
which he professeth, so that he be diligent to frame 
his life according to that Law, and the light of Nature. 
For holy Scripture doth set out unto us only the Name 
of Jesus Christ, whereby men must be saved. 

De speranda ceterna salute tantum in nomine Christi. 

Sunt et illi anathematizandi, qui dicere audent unum- 
quemque in lege aut secta quam profitetur esse ser- 
vandum, modo juxta illam et lumen naturae accurate 
vixerit, cum sacrae literae tantum Jesu Christi nomen 
praedicent, in quo salvos fieri homines oporteat. 

1 " Let us never think it safe to pi-esume of om % own last end 
by bare conjectural collections of his first intent and purpose, the 
means failing that should come between." (Hooker, book v. 60.) 

" Although we cannot fully resolve the difficulty, we notwith 
standing without distrust should adhere to those positive and plain 
declarations, whereby God representeth Himself seriously designing 
and earnestly desiring that all men should come to the knowledge 
of the truth ; that none should perish, but that all should come 
to repentance ; not doubting but his declared mind and his secret 
providence, although we cannot thoroughly discern or explain their 
consistency, do yet really and fully conspire." (Barrow, vol. iii. 
p. 411. Ed. 1692) 

" If you will take my advice, withdraw your minds from a curious 
search into this mystery, and turn them directly to the study of 
piety, and a due reverence to the awful majesty of God. Think 
and speak of God and his secrets with fear and trembling, but dis 
pute very little about them: and, if you would not undo yourselves, 
beware of disputing with Him. If you transgress in any thing, 
blame yourselves ; if you do any good, or i-epent of evil, offer 
thanksgiving to God." (Leighton, Lect. x., Of the Decrees of God.) 


What is the subject of this Article ? Against 
what error is it directed ? What does it say of 
persons who hold this error ? What is meant by 
being "had accursed 1 ?" What appears to have 
been the design of this Article 2 ? When was this 


error first taught 3 ? On what ground did the 
heathen orators of that period defend Paganism 4 ? 
Where else is this error maintained 5 ? 

What does the anathema of this Article pre 
suppose 6 ? How does it affect a heathen who has 
never heard of Christ 7 ? But is such a person 
under no law ? By what law will he be judged ? 
(Rom. ii. 12.) But suppose that person has had 
the religion of Christ proposed to his acceptance, 
how is his condition altered 8 ? What was the 
character of Cornelius before his conversion? 
(Acts x. 2.) To what law was he subject at that 
time ? To what law did he become subject after 
wards ? Was it a great gain to Cornelius to be 
admitted into the Christian covenant 9 ? How do 

1 The word in the Latin version of the Article is " anathemati- 
zandi," which means literally persons to be set apart, or excommuni 

2 To show that it is not a matter of indifference whether men 
embrace the Gospel or not. 

3 In the fourth century, by the advocates of Paganism, against 
the Christian Emperors. 

4 On the ground that God was more honoured by being wor 
shipped in many different ways. 

5 In the Alcoran, which declares that all religions are equally 
acceptable to God. 

That the religion of Christ has been offered, but rejected. 
7 It does not apply to his case. 

From that time he is amenable to the law of Christ. 
Yes ; in whatever degree the Christian state surpasses that 
of the heathen. (See Horn. x. 14, 15.) 


the circumstances of his conversion attest the truth 
asserted in this Article 1 ? Repeat Mark xvi. 16. 
What do these words pre-suppose 2 ? Show this 
from St. Paul. (Rom. x. 14.) 

How does Holy Scripture set out to us the 
method of salvation ? (John xiv. 6.) How is this 
truth attested by St. Peter? (Acts iv. 12.) What 
two things are implied in these words 3 ? To all, 
then, to whom the religion of Christ is offered, 
what alternative remains 4 ? What practical en 
quiry does this suggest to Christians 5 ? What 
caution does St. Paul give on this point ? (2 Tim. 
ii. 19.) 

Evidence from Antiquity. What is the testi 
mony of St. Ignatius to the truth asserted in this 
Article 6 ? Of the Author of the Epistle to 
Diognetus 7 ? Of Irenseus 8 ? Of St. Cyprian 9 ? 

1 We may infer that all religions are not equal, from the pains 
which were taken to bring about his conversion. 

2 That the gospel has first been preached. (See the verse before.) 

3 That there is salvation to be found in Christ, and in none but 
Christ. 4 There is no alternative but to embrace it. 

5 Whether they sincerely believe and trust in Christ. 

6 ST. IGNATIUS. " Let no man be deceived ; even the heavenly 
beings, and the glorious order of angels, and the invisible as well 
as visible powers, unless they believe in the efficacy of the blood of 
Christ, are obnoxious to judgment." (8. Ignat. ad Smyrn. vi.) 

7 " In whom is it possible for us sinful and ungodly persons to 
be justified, but only in the Son of God ?" (Ep. ad Diognet.) 

8 IREN^US. " They who know not (i. e. acknowledge not) Him 
who is of the Virgin, even Emmanuel, are bereft of his gift, which 
is life eternal." (L. iii. c. 19. 1.) 

9 ST. CYPRIAN. " There is no coming to the Father, but by his 
Son Jesus Christ, as appears from what He says in the Gospel 
according to St. John, I am the way, and the truth, and the life; 
no man comet h unto the Father but by me. (Cyprian. Testim. 
ad Quirin. 1. 3. c. 24.) 





Of the Church. 

THE visible Church of Christ is a congregation of 
faithful men, in the which the pure Word of God is 
preached and the Sacraments be duly ministered 
according to Christ s ordinance in all those things that 
of necessity are requisite to the same. 

As the Church of Jerusalem, Alexandria, and Antioch, 
have erred : so also the Church of Rome hath erred, 
not only in their living and manner of Ceremonies, but 
also in matters of Faith. 

De Ecclesia. 

Ecclesia Christi visibilis est coetus fidelium, in quo 
verbum Dei purum praedicatur, et sacramenta, quoad 
ea quae necessario exigantur, juxta Christi institutum 
recte administrantur. Sicut erravit Ecclesia Hierosoly- 
mitana, Alexandrina, et Antiochena ; ita et erravit 
Ecclesia Romana, non solum quoad agenda, et caere- 
moniarum ritus, verum in his etiam quaa credenda sunt. 

How is the visible Church defined in this 
Article ? Why is it called visible l ? What are 
the tests by which the visible Church may be 
known ? Against what claim on the part of the 

1 Because it is that which can be seen by man ; and to distin 
guish it from the Invisible Church. 


Church of Rome is the latter part of this Article 
directed * ? 

The Church What is the literal meaning 1 of 


the word Church 2 ? What word is used to repre 
sent the Church in Scripture 3 ? Is that the word 
used in this* Article ? To what was the word 
ecclesia originally applied 4 ? Is this word used 
in different senses in Scripture 5 ? In what sense 
is it used in Acts xix. 39 ? In what sense in 
Hebrews ii. 12? In what sense in 1 Cor. xi. 18? 
In what sense in 1 Cor. i. 2, and in Acts xv. 41 ? 
In what sense in Ephes. i. 22, 23 ? In what 
sense is it used in the first part of this Article 6 ? 
In what sense in the second 7 ? 

The Church is called visible to distinguish it 
from the invisible Church. What do you mean 
by the invisible Church 8 ? The visible Church is 

1 The claim of infallibility. 

2 The Greek word is KvpiaKrj, derived from Kupiog, and it means 
the Lord s House. 

3 Ecclesia, from the Greek words tic and fcaXIw. This word, 
therefore, properly means an assembly or congregation; and 
Kvataicri the place of assembly ; but the two meanings are often 

4 It originally denoted the popular assemblies of the Grecian 

5 The word is used in many different senses in Scripture. For 
example; in Acts xix. 39, it means a secular assembly; in Heb. 
ii. 12, it means the Jewish Church; in 1 Cor. xi. 18, it means an 
assembly of Christians ; in 1 Cor. i. 2, it means the whole body of 
Christians at Corinth ; in Ephes. i. 22, 23, it means the whole body 
of Christians everywhere. 

6 The whole Christian Society on earth. 

7 The branches of that Society planted in any city or country. 

8 The whole family of God in earth and heaven from the begin 
ning to the end of the world, known to God alone. The Visible 
Church is that of the catted ; the Invisible is that of the elect only. 



described as "a congregation of faithful men." "What 
is here meant by a Congregation l ? Are all the 
members of this Congregation or Society really 
faithful? Why then are they so called 2 ? Who 
are ever mingled with the good in the visible 
Church ? What parables of our Saviour exemplify 
this truth 3 ? What kind of fish were drawn up in 
the net ? What is represented by the net ? How 
did you become a member of the Church ? What 
is required from those who are baptized ? 

What are the two points which are taken as tests 
or standards of the true Church in this Article ? 
What do you mean by the pure Word of God? 
Repeat Acts ii. 42. How many characters of a 
Church are given in that passage ? Which of these 
characters are described in this Article ? Why are 
not fellowship and prayers mentioned 4 ? What is 
meant by preaching 5 ? Where is the Apostles 
doctrine to be found 6 ? Why is not the Sacrament 
of Baptism mentioned in Acts ii. 42 7 ? How does 
St. Paul refer to both Sacraments as instruments 
by which we are united to Christ ? (1 Cor. xii. 13.) 

1 A Society. 

2 They are at least "faithful men" by profession, just as the 
Church is called holy, because holiness is the profession of its 

3 The parables of the tares and the wheat, and the net cast into 
the sea. 

4 Because they are no test, being common to all religions. 

5 Disseminating the Gospel by viva voce teaching in the congre 


In the Holy Scriptures. 
7 Because these persons had already been baptized. (See verse 



What do you mean by those things that of necessity 
are requisite to the Sacraments 1 ? What, for ex 
ample, are the essential parts of the Sacrament 
of Baptism? Of the Sacrament of the Lord s 
Supper ? 

In what sense is the word Church used in the 
second part of this Article 2 ? Can the Catholic 
truth ever be quite lost out of the Church ? Why 
do you infer this 3 ? May any particular Church 
err? What Churches are spoken of as having 
erred ? Why are Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alex 
andria mentioned 4 ? After the destruction of 
Jerusalem by Titus, which were the three most 
celebrated Churches 5 ? In what respects does this 
Article affirm that the Church of Rome hath erred ? 
What do you mean by living and matters of faith 6 ? 

Would the Church of Rome object to being 
classed with other Churches, as in this Article ? 
How is the unity of the Church Catholic declared 
in the Nicene Creed? In what does this unitv 


consist 7 ? In what respects does it differ from the 

1 Those things which are essential to their due administration. 

2 See page 72, note 7- 

3 Because our blessed Lord has promised to be with it to the 
end of the world, and because the Church is " the pillar and 
ground of the truth." 1 Tim. iii. 15. 

4 Because they were the most distinguished of the Churches 
founded by the Apostles. 

5 Antioch, Alexandria, and Rome. 

6 The Latin is " agenda et credenda ;" i. e. " principles of faith 
and conduct." 

7 Its members have one God and Father, one head, which is 
Christ; one faith, one baptism, one hope of their calling; and they 
endeavour to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace. 


unity asserted by the Church, of Rome l ? On 
what ground does the Church of Rome assert this 
supremacy 2 ? Is it quite clear that St. Peter was 
Bishop of Rome 3 ? Repeat Matt. xvi. 18, 19. 
What was the immediate occasion of these words 
being addressed to St. Peter? What is the ori 
ginal meaning of the word Peter 4 ? In what 
sense mi^ht the Church be said to have been built 


upon St. Peter 5 ? Were the words in verse 19 
spoken on any other occasion? (Matt, xviii. 18.) 
To whom were they then addressed ? Why were 
they addressed in the first instance to St. Peter 
only 6 ? Repeat John xxi. 15. Why was this 
charge repeated three times 7 ? Was it intended 

1 The Church of Rome asserts that the Catholic Church means 
all the faithful under one visible head, the Bishop of Rome, who 
is the successor of St. Peter, and Christ s vicar upon earth. 

2 On the ground that it was given by our Lord to St. Peter 
and to his successors. 

3 It is more probable that he was Bishop of Antioch. 

4 A stone. 

5 The promise made here was fulfilled, by Christ s using 
St. Peter s ministry in laying the foundation of the Christian 
Church among both Jews and Gentiles ; and in his being the first 
preacher to them of that faith, which he here confesses, and 
making the first proselytes to it ; for St. Peter laid the first 
foundations of a Church among the Jews, by the conversion of 
3000 souls, (Acts ii. 41,) who, when they gladly had embraced 
St. Peter s doctrine, were all baptized ; and then (verse 47) we 
first find mention of a Christian Church. St. Peter also laid the 
first foundations of a Church among the Gentiles, by the conver 
sion of Cornelius and his friends. (Acts x.) (See Bp. Pearson on 
the Creed, Art. ix.) 

6 To show the unity of the Church. " Whereas all the rest of 
the Apostles had equal power and honour with St. Peter, yet 
Christ did particularly give that power to St. Peter, to show the 
unity of the Church which he intended to build upon the founda 
tion of the Apostles." (Pearson, p. 340. ed. 1669.) 

7 In reference, probably, to Peter s threefold denial. 

E 2 


for St. Peter only 1 ? Was St. Peter present at 
the council held at Jerusalem about the question 
of circumcision? (Acts xv. 7.) Who presided at 
that council? (verse 13.) What do you infer? 
Is any supremacy given to St. Peter in Gal. ii. 9 ? 
What happened afterwards ? (verse 11.) Supposing 
that St. Peter was Bishop of Rome, was this supre 
macy conceded to his successors ? Who opposed 
the supremacy of Victor 2 ? When did Pope 
Stephen live 3 ? Who opposed his claim to the 
supremacy 4 ? What was conceded to him by 
Cyprian 5 ? When was the claim first regularly 
made to pre-eminence of power 6 ? Had the 
Church of Rome erred at this time? Does this 
Article admit that the Church of Rome is a part of 
the Church Catholic 7 ? 

Evidence from Antiquity. Does the definition 
of the Church in this Article agree with those of 
the early Fathers ? How does Clement describe the 

1 No; and it was not so understood by St. Peter. (See 1 Peter 
v. 12.) AUGUSTINE. " When it was said to Peter, it was said to 
all." (De ag. Christiana, 30, 12.) 

2 Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons. 

3 In the 3rd century. 

4 St. Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage. 

5 Cyprian asserted the exclusive right of the Church of Carthage 
to manage its own concerns ; though he admitted that where 
different Churches were required to act in concert, he was willing 
to give precedence to Rome, on account of the importance of the 
city; just as in the Church of England, the Bishop of London takes 
precedence, after the Archbishops, for the same reason. 

6 At the end of the 6th century, by Gregory the Great. 

7 Yes. But it is a corrupt and an erring portion of the Church 
Catholic, as the Greek Churches are. 


Church l ? How is it described by Origen 2 ? What 
are the three notes or marks of a true Church, 
according to the Homily for "Whitsunday s ? 


Of the Authority of the Church. 

The Church hath power to decree Rites or Cere 
monies, and authority in Controversies of Faith : And 
yet it is not lawful for the Church to ordain any thing 
that is contrary to God s Word written, neither may it 
so expound one place of Scripture, that it be repugnant 
to another. Wherefore, although the Church be a 
witness and a keeper of holy Writ, yet, as it ought 
not to decree any thing against the same, so besides 
the same ought it not to enforce any thing to be 
believed for necessity of Salvation. 

De EcclesitE Auctoritate. 

Habet Ecclesia ritus sive caeremonias statuendi jus, 
et in fidei controversiis auctoritatem ; quamvis Ecclesiae 
non licet quicquam instituere, quod verbo Dei scripto 
adversetur, nee unum Scripturae locum sic exponere 
potest, ut alteri contradicat. Quare licet Ecclesia sit 
divinorum librorum testis et conservatrix, attamen ut 
adversus eos nihil decernere, ita praeter illos nihil cre- 
dendum de necessitate salutis debet obtrudere. 

1 CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA. He says, " I mean by the Church, 
not a place, but the congregation of the elect." 

2 ORIGE.X. He describes the Church as the assembly of all the 

3 " The true Church is a universal congregation of God s faith 
ful and elect people, built upon the foundation of the Apostles and 
Prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the head corner stone. And 
it always hath three notes or marks whereby it is known ; pure 
and sound doctrine, the Sacraments ministered according to Christ s 
holy institution, and the right use of ecclesiastical discipline. This 
description of the Church is agreeable both to the Scriptures of 
God, and also to the doctrine of the ancient Fathers, so that none 
may j ustly find fault therewith." (Horn, for Whitsunday, 2nd part. 
[Oxford edition, p. 413.]) 

E 3 


What is the subject of this Article ? What is 
affirmed with regard to the authority of the Church? 
What do you mean hy power l ? To what does the 
expression " controversies of faith" allude 2 ? By 
what rules must the Church be guided in the exer 
cise of this authority 3 ? 

What is meant by the Church in this Article * ? 
Is the Church a Society, or an assembly 5 ? Mention 
one of the marks of a Society 6 . 

What are the two points to be proved in this 
Article 7 ? 

Rites and Ceremonies. Had the Jewish Church 
any rites and ceremonies not enjoined by Moses 8 ? 
Were these ceremonies condemned by our Saviour ? 

1 The Latin word is jus, which means right. 

2 Disputes which may arise in the Church from time to time 
on matters of faith. 

3 The Church must ordain nothing contrary to the Word of 
God ; it must not so explain one place of Scripture, that it is 
repugnant to another; and it must neither decree any thing 
against the Scriptures, nor enforce any thing as necessary to be 
believed beside the Scriptures. 

* The whole Christian Society on earth. 

5 " The Church is always a visible Society of men ; not an 
Assembly, but a Society. For although the name of the Church be 
given unto Christian assemblies, although any number of Christian 
men congregated may be termed by the name of a Church, yet 
assemblies properly are rather things that belong to a Church. 
Men are assembled for performance of public actions; which 
actions being ended, the assembly dissolveth itself, and is no longer 
in being : whereas the Church which was assembled doth no less 

O f . 

continue afterwards, than before." (Hooker, lib. iii. 1.) 

6 It must have regularly appointed officers, and rules for its 

7 That the Church has authority; (1) in ceremonies, (2) in 
matters of faith. 

8 It had several ; such as certain forms in observing the Pass 
over, the service of their Synagogues, the feast of Purim, the 
order of burial, of marriage, &c. 


What do you infer ? What is implied in the ex 
pression " the giving of the keys ?" Repeat 1 Cor. 
xiv. 40. What does this direction imply ? 

Controversies of faith. Supposing disputes to 
arise in any human society, must that society have 
authority to settle them ? When a dispute arose 
in the early Church about the question of circum 
cision, how was it settled * ? What authority did 
St. Paul give to Timothy ? (1 Tim. i. 3.) Was a 
similar authority given to Titus? (Titus iii. 10.) 
How does our Lord assert the authority of the 
Church ? (Matt, xviii. 1 7.) 

The rules by which the Church miist be guided. 
In the case of a human society, by what must its 
officers be guided in their management of it 2 ? 
For example, by what law must the visitor of a 
College be guided 3 ? The Judges of the land 4 ? 
By what law must the Church be guided 5 ? What 
is the difference between the authority of the 
Church as to rites and ceremonies, and the same 
authority as to matters of faith 6 ? Why may not 
the Church ordain any thing which is contrary to 
the written word of God 7 ? Repeat Gal. i. 8. Why 
may not the Church so expound one place of Scrip- 

1 By a decree of the Church. 
By the laws of the Society. 

3 By its statutes. 

4 By the laws of the land. 
By the Scriptures. 

Matters of faith must necessarily be contained in the word 
of God; rites and ceremonies must not be inconsistent with the 
word of God. 

7 See Article VI. 

E 4 


ture, that it be repugnant to another l ? The 
Church is a witness and keeper of holy Writ. In 
what respects is the Church a witness 2 ? In what 
respects a keeper 3 ? On what authority do we re 
ceive the Canon of Scripture ? Does the same 
power belong to a particular Church as to the 
universal, with* regard to the settlement of disputes? 
On what principle are all Articles and Creeds con 
structed * ? Is great respect due to such decisions 
of the Church as are in agreement with the teach 
ing of this Article 5 ? 

Evidence from Antiquity. Has the Church 
always possessed the authority given to it in this 
Article ? What is the testimony of Clemens Ro- 
manus to this point 6 ? Of Clemens Alexandrinus 7 ? 

1 Because all Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and there 
fore there must be a perfect consistency and agreement in its 
several parts. 

2 The Church is a witness to its age and authority. 

The Church is a keeper or a guardian of Scripture, as a 
College is of its statutes. 

4 The principle of Church authority. 

5 " Unto laws thus made and received by a whole Church, they 
which live within the bosom of that Church must not think it a 
matter indifferent either to yield or not to yield obedience. . Is it 
a small offence to despise the Church of God ? My Son, keep thy 
Father s commandment) saith Solomon, and forget not thy Mother s 
instruction bind, them both always about thine heart. It doth not 
stand with the duty which we owe to our Heavenly Father, that to 
the ordinances of our Mother the Church we should show our 
selves disobedient." (Hooker, book iii. 9.) 

6 CLEMENS ROMAN us. " We must do all things in order, what 
soever the Lord hath commanded us ; to wit, make our prayers and 
oblations at the stated seasons, and not irregularly and by chance, 
but at the times and hours appointed." (Ep. 1. 40.) 

7 CLEMENS ALEXANDRTNUS. " We must not by any means 
whatsoever, transgress the Canon of the Church." (Strom, vii. 15.) 


Of St. Cyprian 1 ? What rite or ceremony was de 
creed at the council of Nice 2 ? What controversy 
of faith was settled at that council 3 ? What is the 
testimony of St. Cyprian as to the rules by which 
the Church must be guided * ? Of St. Augustine 5 ? 
Of St. Chrysostom 6 ? 


O/ ^e Authority of General Councils. 

General Councils may not be gathered together 
without the commandment and will of Princes. And 
when they be gathered together, (forasmuch as they be 
an assembly of men, whereof all be not governed with 

1 ST. CYPRIAN. " Our Lord, whose precepts we ought to fear 
and to observe, when arranging the honour of the Bishop, and the 
administration of the Church, speaks in the Gospel, and says to 
Peter, I say unto thee, that thou art Peter, &c. Thence 
through the changes of times and of successions, the ordination of 
Bishops and the administration of the Church has come down, so 
that the Church is built upon the Bishops, and every act of the 
Church is directed by the same overseers." (Cyprian, de Lapsls, 
Ep. xxvii.) 

2 The time for celebrating Easter. 

3 The Arian controversy. 

* ST. CYPRIAN. " We must by no means depart from the pre 
cepts of the Gospel. For we are not to follow the custom of men, 
but the truth of God." (Cyprian. Epist. 63.) 

5 ST. AUGUSTINE. "When the proper words do make the 
Scripture doubtful, we must first have a care that we do not dis 
tinguish or pronounce wrongly. When, therefore, diligence being 
used, it foresees it is uncertain how it should be distinguished or 
pronounced, let him consult the Rule of Faith, which he may per 
ceive from t/te plainer places of the Scriptures, and the authority of 
the Church." (Auy, de doctrina Christiana, \. 2.) 

6 ST. CHRYSOSTOM. " But all things that are in the Holy 
Scriptures are clear and right ; all things necessary are manifest." 
(Chrysost. In 2 Thess. Horn. 3.) 

E 5 


the Spirit and Word of God,) they may err, and some 
times have erred, even in things pertaining unto God. 
Wherefore things ordained by them as necessary to 
salvation have neither strength nor authority, unless 
it may be declared that they be taken out of holy 

De auctoritate Conciliorum generalium. 

Generalia Concilia sine jussu et voluntate Principum 
congregari non possunt ; et ubi convenerint, quia ex 
hominibus constant, qui non omnes Spiritu et Verbo 
Dei reguntur, et errare possunt, et interdum errarunt 
etiam in his quae ad Deum pertinent ; ideoque quse ab 
illis constituuntur, ut ad salutem necessaria, neque robur 
habent, neque auctoritatem, nisi ostendi possint e sacris 
Hteris esse desumpta. 

What is the subject of this Article ? What do you 
mean by a Council * ? Why are the Councils here 
spoken of, called general 2 ? What do you mean by 
"things pertaining to God 3 ?" What is the earliest 
instance of a Council being assembled ? (Acts xv.) 
In what important particular did this Council dif 
fer from all subsequent ones * ? When do we first 
hear of national or provincial councils in Ecclesi 
astical History 5 ? By what name were they 
called 6 ? What was the first general Council 7 ? 
Why were not general Councils held at an earlier 
period ? By whose authority was the Council of 

1 An assembly of ecclesiastical persons. 

2 To distinguish them from national or provincial Councils. 

3 Matters of faith. 

4 Its members were inspired persons. 

5 In the middle of the 2nd century. 

6 Synods. 

7 That of Nice, A.D. 325. 


Nice called * ? By whose authority were other 
general Councils convened 2 ? What was that 
Council called, which was convened by the Church 
of Rome in 1123 3 ? Was the Council of Trent 
called by the authority of the Church of Rome 
alone ? Had that Church power to call a general 
council ? What impediment is there now to a 
general council being held? 

What is the relation of Church and State in 
a Christian community 4 ? Who is the supreme 
governor in such a community 5 ? What sanction 
then must the persons composing general councils 
have, before they can meet to deliberate 6 ? In the 
constitution of the Jewish Polity, in whom was 
the supreme power vested 7 ? To whom was the 
direction given in Numbers xi. 16? What was 
the nature of that direction ? Who summoned a 
council to consult about bringing back the ark ? 
(1 Chron. xiii. 1, 2.) Why did not the Apostles 

That of the Emperor Constantino. 

2 The second general council, that of Constantinople, A.D. 381, 
by the authority of Theodosius ; the third at Ephesus, A.D. 431, 
by Theodosius the younger ; the fourth at Chalcedon, A.D, 451, by 

3 The first Lateran Council, included by the Church of Rome 
in the number of general councils. 

4 In a Christian community, Church and State are one and (he 
same thing ; every member of such a community being a part of 
both. Hooker says, " The Church and Commonwealth are names 
which import things really different, but those things are accidents, 
and such accidents as may and should always dwell lovingly 
together in one subject." (Hooker, b. viii. 5.) 

The Sovereign power, whatever it may be. 
1 The sanction of the government of the countries to which they 
respectively belong. 

7 In Moses, as the representative of the civil power. 

E 6 


obtain the sanction of the civil power in the case 
recorded in Acts xv. 1 ? What general precepts 
of the New Testament enforce obedience to the 
civil power? (Romans xiii. 1 5. Titus iii. 1.) 
Was the civil power Christian, when these precepts 
were given ? What do you infer from this 2 ? 

General Councils not infallible. What alone 
could secure a general council from error 3 ? Was 
this the case with the council held at Jerusalem ? 
Show that the members of that council were guided 
by the Holy Grhost. (Acts xv. 28.) Can these words 
be applied in the same sense to other councils 4 ? 
On what grounds alone can we admit the infalli 
bility of councils 5 ? Repeat Matt. xvi. 18, last 
clause. Does this promise relate to the infallibility 
of councils 6 ? Repeat John xiv. 26. To whom 
was this promise originally given 7 ? Repeat Matt, 
xviii. 20. Was this promise limited to the Apostles 
only 8 ? In applying these and similar passages 

1 They were inspired persons, and the civil power under which 
they lived had not then embraced Christianity ; moreover, this 
was not a general council. 

2 If obedience to the civil power was enjoined upon Christians 
when that power was heathen, how much more when it became 
Christian ? 

3 Its members being all favoured with a special Divine super 

4 No. The former had the grace of special and miraculous 
illumination, whereas other councils have only had the favour of 
that general assistance and presence which Christ promises to his 

5 They must be proved to be so from Scripture. 

6 No ; it is a general promise of perpetuity of the faith to the 
Church Catholic, not of infallibility to a particular council. 

7 To the Apostles, as the founders of the Christian Church. 

8 No ; it is a general promise of Christ s presence with his 
Church to the end of time. 


to the case of general councils, what points must 
first be examined l ? Apply these tests to the 
Council of Nice. Supposing a general council to 
have been lawfully summoned, what must be its 
ultimate appeal, as to things necessary to salvation ? 
Evidence from Antiquity. How does Tertullian 
assert the supremacy of the civil power 2 ? What 
is the testimony of St. Jerome 3 ? Show that 
general councils have erred, even in things pertain 
ing to God 4 . 


Of Purgatory. 

The Romish doctrine concerning Purgatory, Pardons, 
Worshipping and Adoration, as well of Images as of 
Reliques, and also invocation of Saints, is a fond thing 
vainly invented, and grounded upon no warranty of 
Scripture, but rather repugnant to the Word of God. 

De Purgatorio. 

Doctrina Romanensium de Purgatorio, de Indulgen- 
tiis, de Veneratione, et Adoratione, turn Imaginum 
turn Reliquiarum, necnon de invocatione Sanctorum, res 
est futilis, inaniter conficta, et nullis Scripturarum tes- 
timoniis innititur ; immo verbo Dei contradicit. 

1 We must inquire whether these councils have had good motives, 
and whether they have been unanimous. 

2 TERTULLIAN. " The Emperor is greater than all, and less 
than none but the true God." (Tert. ad Scap. c. 2.) 

3 ST. JEROME. " Answer, I pray thee, the synod by which he 
was excommunicated, in what city was it ? Teach us who were 
consuls that year : What Emperor commanded this council to be 
gathered together!" (See Beteridge, vol. ii. p. 144.) 

4 The Council of Rimini (summoned by Constantius, A. D. 360,) 
subscribed an erroneous Creed, so that, as Jerome says, " the 
whole world groaned, and wondered to find itself Arian." The 
second Nicene Council, A.D. 787? decreed the worship of images. 


"What is the subject of this Article ? How does 
this Article differ from that published in 1552 1 ? 
How is the Romish doctrine concerning these 


points described ? What do you mean by a fond 
thing 2 ? What is the Latin, translated "but rather 
repugnant to the Word of God 3 ?" 

These doctrines are condemned for three causes : 

(1) They are not grounded on reason ; 

(2) Nor on Scripture. 

(3) They are contrary to both. 

Purgatory. What is the Romish doctrine con 
cerning Purgatory * ? From whence does the idea 
of Purgatory appear to have originated 5 ? Is there 
any allusion to Purgatory in Scripture 6 ? Repeat 

1 What is here called the " Romish doctrine " is there called 
"the doctrine of the Schoolmen ;" because in 1552 the Church 
of Rome had not authoritatively recognized these doctrines ; they 
were however so recognized by that Church in 1563. 

2 The Latin is " res est futilis, inaniter conficta," a foolish thing, 
falsely devised. 

3 " Immo, verbo Dei contradicit," yea, rather, it contradicts the 
word of God. 

4 That every man is subject both to temporal and eternal 
punishment, for his sins ; that God does indeed pardon sin as to 
its eternal punishment, for the merits of Christ ; but that the 
sinner is still liable to temporal punishment, which must be ex 
piated by voluntary acts of penance here ; and if the expiation 
does not fully take place in this life, that there is an intermediate 
state in which departed souls suffer the remainder of their punish 
ment, called PURGATORY, because it is supposed to purge them 
from the remaining effects of their sins. 

5 It is of heathen origin. Virgil appears to allude to it in the 
following lines : 

Ergo exercentur poenis, veterumque malorum 
Supplicia expendunt. Aliae panduntur inanes 
Suspensae ad ventos ; aliis sub gurgite vasto 
Infectum eluitur scelus, aut exuritur igni. 

jEn. lib. vi. v. 739. 

6 No. [We read indeed of a place called Hades, the abode of 
departed spirits, until their reunion with their bodies on the day 


Rev. xxi. 27. Where must we be cleansed in 
order that we may enter heaven? (Eccles. ix. 10. 
2 Cor. vi. 2.) Repeat 1 Cor. iii. 915. On what 
subject is St. Paul speaking in that passage ? To 
what does he compare the different teachers ? 
What do you understand by the gold, silver, pre 
cious stones, &C. 1 ? What is the day spoken of 
inverse 13 2 ? How will that day be revealed? 
(2 Thess. i. 7, 8.) What effect will the fire have 
upon the different teachers works 3 ? What will 
happen to the teacher himself? (verse 15, last 
clause.} What do you mean by the expression 
"yet so as by fire 4 V Repeat Matt. xii. 32, last 
clause. What do you understand by the words 
neither in this world, neither in the world to 

of resurrection. And it would further appear that this place is 
divided into two completely separated parts : the abode of wicked 
spirits, where they fearfully anticipate their future doom ; and the 
abode of holy spirits, called Paradise, and Abraham s bosom, (after 
the manner of the Jews,) where they joyfully anticipate their 
" perfect consummation and bliss, both in body and soul." Our 
Lord himself did not ascend into heaven until his human soul had 
been reunited to his body. But there are but two states or con 
ditions of men after death, one of happiness, and the other of 
punishment, the state of each individual after death being unalter 
able. Compare Luke xvi. 22, 23. Matt. xxv. 46. Luke xxiii. 
43. &c.] 

1 Different characters converted to Christianity ; some of whom 
would be genuine converts, and others counterfeits (dSoKip,oi). 

2 The day of judgment. 

3 The true converts will pass safely through, the rest will be 

* He will escape, as a man escapes whose house is on fire ; i.e. 
he will save himself and nothing more. Compare Jude 23, and 
Livy xxii. 35, " Ex damnatione collegse et sua prope ambustus 


come * ?" What is the parallel passage in St. 
Mark ? (iii. 29.) 

What state did St. Paul expect after death ? 
(2 Tim. iv. 8. Phil. i. 23.) Into what state is 
Lazarus represented as passing immediately after 
his death ? (Luke xvi. 22.) What was our Lord s 
promise to thepenitent thief on the cross ? How 
is the condition of all those who die in the Lord 
described by St. John ? (Rev. xiv. 13.) 

Does it please God sometimes to visit his people 
with temporal punishments for sin ? How was 
David punished for his presumptuous sin ? (2 Sam. 
xii. 10. 14) What was the sin of Moses? How 
was he punished ? (Deut. xxxii. 49.) Does it please 
God sometimes to recompense the wicked with a 
temporal reward ? How was Ahab rewarded for 
his feigned humiliation ? (1 Kings xxi. 29.) What 
was the reward of Nebuchadnezzar for his service 
against Tyrus ? (Ezek. xxix. 18 20.) Have 
these instances any thing to do with the doctrine 
condemned in this Article 2 ? 

Was it an early custom in the Church to pray 
for the dead 3 ? Had this custom any connexion 
with Purgatory * ? What was the origin of prayers 

1 It merely signifies what would never take place. 

2 No. They are a part of God s moral government in this 
world, for the purpose of vindicating his attributes ; but they have 
nothing to do with the state beyond the grave. 

3 It had become very general in the third century, but we read 
nothing of it in the first or second. 

* No. These prayers were offered for those who were believed 
to be in the intermediate state, and had originally no connexion 
with Purgatory ; though they prepared the way for that error. 


for the dead 1 ? Is there any authority in Scripture 
for the practice of praying for the dead ? When 
are we taught to believe that the elect of God will 
be admitted to their complete happiness 2 ? How 
is this expressed in the Burial Service 3 ? 

Pardons. What is the Latin word translated 
pardons 4 ? What is the Romish doctrine con 
cerning pardons 5 ? What other doctrine of the 
Church of Rome is connected with it c ? Why do 
you conclude that the Romish doctrine with refer 
ence to such pardons is a fond thing, vainly in 
vented 7 ? In what respect is it repugnant to the 
Word of God ? 

Had the primitive Church the power of inflict 
ing temporal punishments 9 ? On what example 
of the New Testament does this appear to have 
been founded ? (1 Cor. v.) What was the nature 

1 It was the custom in the primitive Church to commemorate 
the departed saints annually upon the days of their deaths, which 
days were called natalitia, because they were the days on which 
they were born again to heaven; and these acts of commemoration, 
by an easy transition, passed into prayers for their happiness. 

2 At the final reunion of soul and body at the last day. 

3 " That we, with all those that are departed in the true faith of 
thy Holy Name, may have our perfect consummation and bliss, 
both in body and soul, in thy eternal and everlasting glory." 

4 IndulgenticB. 

That the Church has power to remit a whole or part of the 
pains of Purgatory, on certain conditions. 
6 Supererogation. See Article XIV. 

It depends for its truth upon the doctrines of Purgatory and 
Works of Supererogation, which have been shown to be false. 

It gives to man the power of remitting God s debts; whereas, 
" Who can forgive sins but God alone ?" 

The primitive Church had the power of putting notorious 
sinners to open penance in this world. (See the Comminution 


of these punishments ! ? When was the privilege 
granted of relaxing their severity 2 ? What were 
these favours called 3 ? How did they differ from 
the pardons condemned in this Article * ? 

Worshipping and adoration, as well of Images 
as of Reliques. 

Images. What are the Latin words translated 
worshipping and adoration 5 ? Repeat the second 
commandment. What does this commandment 
forbid 6 ? What reason does God give for not 
having assumed a visible shape, when He gave the 
law from Sinai? (Deut. iv. 16.) Did the Israelites, 
notwithstanding this commandment, fall into 
idolatry ? Were they punished for so doing ? 
What was the argument used by St. Paul to dis 
suade the Athenians from idolatry? (Acts xvii. 
2429.) Repeat 1 John v. 21. 

How has it been attempted to defend the use of 
images 7 ? Why was the Gentile world condemned 
by St. Paul? (Roto. i. 2123.) What is the 
Greek word translated an image in that passage 8 ? 

1 The offender was excluded from the Sacrament of the Lord s 
Supper, until he had performed certain acts of penance. 

2 At the Council of Nice. 

3 Indulgences. 

4 They were a remission of temporal punishments, which as 
the Church had inflicted, so it had a right to relax. 

5 Veneratio et adoratio. 

6 It forbids us to worship the true God by an image. 

7 By making a distinction between an image (tucwv) and an 
idol (fi&oXov); the former being a true representation of a thing, 
the latter representing that which is not. It is then asserted, that 
images (tucoveg) may be used, because the mind wants a fulcrum 
on which to rest the thoughts in prayer. 


What appears to have been the object of the 
Israelites in setting up the golden calf 1 ? How 
is this commented upon by the Psalmist ? (Psalm 
cvi. 19, 20.) By whose command were the 
cherubims made for the service of the tabernacle ? 
Where were they placed ? (Heb. ix. 3 5.) Why 
do you conclude that they were never intended to 
be an object of worship 2 ? 

Had the early Christians any images in their 
worship 3 ? By what arguments did they combat 
the Gentile practice of image worship 4 ? About 
what period were images first introduced 5 ? What 
appears to have been their design 6 ? 

Reliques. What are meant by reliques 7 ? Does 
Scripture give any sanction to the adoration of 
reliques ? What is recorded with regard to the 
burial of Moses ? (Deut. xxxiv. 6.) What appears 
to have been the reason for this care with reference 
to his sepulchre 8 ? Repeat 2 Kings xviii. 4. What 

1 It does not appear that they intended to make it as a god, or 
as the representative of a god, but merely as something sensible 
by which to worship Jehovah. 

2 Because they were placed in the " holiest of all," where the 
high priest went only once a year, and the people never. 

3 No ; and they were reproached by the heathen for not using 

4 The plain statements of Scripture, and the spiritual nature 
of God. 

In the fifth century. 

6 To honour the memory of departed saints ; and perhaps also 
to accommodate the Christian religion to the prejudices of the 

7 The i-emains of departed saints, such as their bodies, and even 
their bones, their hair, or their garments, &c. 

8 The proneness of the Jews to idolatry, which might have led 
them to pay Divine honour to his body. 


abuse had the Israelites made of the brazen serpent? 
Was Hezeluah commended for destroying it ? Why 
were Aaron s rod and the manna preserved l ? Is 
there any evidence that they were worshipped? 
What miracle was wrought by the bones of Elisha 
after his death ? (2 Kings xiii. 21.) Were they 
worshipped ih consequence ? Repeat Acts xix. 11, 
12. Do these miracles give any countenance to 
the veneration of reliques 2 ? If reliques had been 
intended to be the objects of adoration, when might 
we suppose they would have been most carefully 
preserved 3 ? What did "devout men" do with the 
body of Stephen after his martyrdom ? (Acts 
viii. 2.) 

Invocation of Saints. What is the Romish doc 
trine concerning the invocation of saints * ? How 
does it appear that this is a fond thing, vainly 
invented 5 ? In what respect is it repugnant to the 
Word of God ? (1 Tim. ii. 5.) Do we read of any 
invocation of saints in the Old Testament ? Was 
Abraham invocated ? Or Moses ? Or Elijah 6 ? 
What does St. Paul forbid in Col. ii. 18 ? If we 

1 That they might be records of God s power. 

2 No ; the handkerchiefs and aprons were only the instruments 
of Christ s power, just as the border of his garment was in the case 
of the woman with the issue of blood. 

3 In the earliest period of Christianity, when the most precious 
reliques, those of our Saviour and his Apostles, were to be obtained. 

4 That the saints reigning with Christ offer up their prayers for 
men, and that it is good and useful to invocate or pray unto them. 

5 Because it assumes that the saints are omniscient and omni 

No; although the miraculous manner of his translation might 
have been thought a good reason for such invocation. 


are forbidden to worship angels, what may we infer 
with regard to men ? When St. John fell down 
to worship the angel, what was the answer ? (Rev. 
xix. 10.) Repeat the exhortation in Heb. xiii. 7. 
What are Christians here directed to do with regard 
to those who had departed 2 ? Why do you infer that 
this exhortation refers to those who were dead 3 ? 

Upon what grounds has it been attempted to 
justify the invocation of saints 4 ? Is there any 
authority for this distinction in Scripture ? 

What appears to have been the origin of the 
invocation of saints 5 ? About what time does the 
custom appear to have been confirmed 6 ? 

Evidence from Antiquity. What is the testimony 
of St. Clement against the doctrine of Purgatory 1 ? 

1 That they must not be worshipped, being tower than the angels. 

2 To remember, to reverence, and to imitate them. 

3 The original is in the past tense, Mvrjuovtvtrt TWV riyovp,tv(>jv 

o irivtQ iXdXrjffav &c. 

By making a distinction between the homage and the addresses 
made to God, and those made to saints. They say that Xarpti a 
is given to God, CovXtia to saints, and vTTtpSovXtia to the Virgin 
Mary. They say that they address God, in the words miserere 
nobh, and the saints in the words ora pro nobis. 

5 It appears to have originated in the natalitia or commemora 
tion days referred to before ; but it was by almost imperceptible 
steps that the practice of praying to the saints was confirmed. 

6 Not till the end of the fourth century. 

7 [ST. CLEMENT. " Whilst therefore we are upon earth, let us 
repent. For we are as clay in the hand of the artificer. For as 
the potter, if he makes a vessel, and finds it crooked or broken 
in his hands, may again fashion it anew ; but if beforehand he 
hath thrown it into the fiery furnace, there is no more help for it, 
he cannot make it better ; so also we, as long as we are in this 
world, may repent from the whole heart, of the evils we have done 
in the flesh, that we may be saved of the Lord, whilst we have 
opportunity of repentance. For after we have left this world, we 
can no longer confess or repent." (Clem. Rom. Ep. ii. c. viii.)] 


Of St. Cyprian ? Of St. Chrysostom 2 ? How does 
Justin Martyr speak of the condition of righteous 
and wicked souls respectively in the intermediate 
state 3 ? 

Give a testimony from St. Chrysostom on the 
doctrine of Pardons 4 . From St. Ambrose 5 . 

What is the evidence of Origen on the subject 
of Image worship 6 ? Of Gregory the Great ? What 
was the decree of the Elibertine Council on this 
point 7 ? 

How does St. Augustine speak of the practice of 
worshipping Reliques 8 ? 

1 ST. CYPRIAN. " There is no confession in the invisible vrorld, 
nor any discipline of repentance there." (Ep. 55. Oxf. ed.) 

2 ST. CHRYSOSTOM. "For those that truly follow virtue, after 
they are changed from this life, they be truly freed from their 
fightings, and loosed from their bonds. For death to such as live 
honestly is a change from worse to better, from this transitory to 
an immortal and eternal life that hath no end." (Chrysost. in Gen. 
Horn. 36.) 

3 [ JUSTIN MARTYR. " The souls of the wicked, subsisting even 
after death, feel punishment ; but the souls of good men live 
happily, free from punishments." (Just. Mart. Apol. ii.)] 

4 ST. CIIRYSOSTOM. " None can pardon sins but only God." 
(Chrys. in 2 Cor. Ham. 6.) 

5 ST. AMBROSE. " This cannot be common to any man with 
Christ to forgive sins. This is his gift only who took away the 
sins of the world." (Beveridge, vol. ii. p. 1 64.) 

6 ORIGEN. " We do not honour images, that as much as in us 
lies, we might not fall into the suspicion that these images were 
other gods." (Orig. cont. Cels. 1. 70 

GREGORY. " To worship images, by all means avoid." (Greg. 
Mag. epist. 1.1.) 

7 That pictures or images ought not to be in the Church, lest 
that which is worshipped and adored should be painted upon the 
walls. (Condi. Elibert. cap. 36.) 

8 He condemns them, and says, speaking of the practice of the 
idle monks, " Alii martyrum, si vere martyrum, membra vendi- 
tant." (Aug. de op. Monachorum, cap. 28.) 


At whose suggestion was the body of Polycarp 
burnt after his martyrdom * ? Why ? How did the 
Christians defend themselves from this accusation 2 ? 
What is the testimony of Augustine with regard 
to the Invocation of Saints 3 ? 


Of Ministering in the Congregation. 

It is not lawful for any man to take upon him the 
office of publick preaching, or ministering the Sacra 
ments in the Congregation, before he be lawfully called, 
and sent to execute the same. And those we ought 
to judge lawfully called and sent, which be chosen and 
called to this work by men who have publick authority 
given unto them in the Congregation, to call and send 
Ministers into the Lord s vineyard. 

De Ministrando in Ecclesia. 

Non licet cuiquam sumere sibi munus publice prsedi- 
candi, aut administrandi Sacramenta in Ecclesia, nisi 
prius fuerit ad hsec obeunda legitime vocatus et missus. 
Atque illos legitime vocatos et missos existimare debe- 

1 At the suggestion of the Jews, for fear it should be taken by 
the Christians and shrined. 

2 They said, " These men know not that we can neither forsake 
Christ, who suffered for the salvation of all that are saved, the 
innocent for the guilty, nor worship any other ; Him truly, being 
the Son of God, we adore ; but the martyrs, and disciples, and 
followers of the Lord, we justly love for that extraordinary good 
mind which they have expressed toward their King and Master ; 
of whose happiness God grant that we partake, and that we 
may learn by their examples." (Eccles. Smyr. Ep. de S. Poly. 
Martyr, xvii.) 

3 AUGUSTINE. " Let us not make it any part of religion to 
worship men that are dead ; for if they lived well, they are now in 
that state, that they need not, neither do they require any honour 
at our hands ; but they would have us to worship God," &c. " They 
are then to be honoured for imitation ; not to be adored for 
religion. (Aug. de rera religione, cap. 55.) 


mus, qui per homines, quibus potestas vocandi minis- 
tros, atque mittendi in vineam Domini, publice concessa 
est in Ecclesia, cooptati fuerint, et adsciti in hoc opus. 

What is the subject of this Article ? What is 

meant by the Congregation l ? How is ministering 
in the Congregation described in this Article ? Why 
are these two points mentioned 2 ? What is the 
Latin version of the words " chosen and called 3 ?" 

What are the two propositions to be proved in 
this Article 4 ? 

Are these propositions agreeable to right reason, 
and to our sense of the natural fitness of things ? 
Is the same principle recognized in the things of 
the world, and in the administration of human 
affairs 5 ? What inference do you draw from hence 6 ? 
Does it appear from Scripture that it is the will 
of Christ that his Church should be ordered and 

1 The word in the Latin is ecclesia, which is elsewhere translated 

2 See the answer in Article XIX. 

3 " Cooptati et adsciti ;" the former of which was the word 
used to represent admission into the College of Augurs at Rome ; 
and both words imply that ministers must be admitted to their 
office by those who are ministers. 

4 First : that ministers must not be self-appointed ; and secondly) 
that they must be appointed by those who have authority for this 

5 In human governments, no man is accounted to have a lawful 
call to any office, nor can lie be permitted to execute it, except he 
be appointed to it, either by those who have the chief authority, 
or by persons delegated by them. 

6 How much less is it seemly or lawful, that any should take 
upon them to act in such sacred and high ministries as those 
which relate to God s holy Word and Sacraments, except they 
have first been commissioned by the great Head of the Church, 
or by those to whom He has delegated authority. 


governed in any particular way l ? Does the Scrip 
ture contain any express direction as to the regula 
tion and government of Christ s Church 2 ? But 


would not Christ, if He had intended that there 
should be at all times a certain constitution and 
order in his Church, have taken care to tell us this 
so explicitly and distinctly, that there should be 
no room for error or dispute 3 ? Has Christ been 
pleased to deal with us in this manner in any 
other cases of importance relative to duty 4 ? For 
example ; on what principle do we condemn 
Polygamy? On what principle do we observe 
the first day of the week, instead of the seventh, 
as the Christian Sabbath ? On what principle do 

1 We know that He is infinitely wise and good, a God of order 
and not of confusion ; and He intended his Church to continue 
for ever ; and this it could not do without such provision, for no 
society can hold together without rule and subordination. 

2 We do not say that there is a direction in Scripture so plain 
as that contentious persons may not say it is not sufficient to con 
vince them; but there is evidence enough on the subject to satisfy 
the humble and sincere inquirer, who is not unwilling to be 
convinced by just reason. 

3 This cannot be concluded on any reasonable analogy. If He 
has given us intimations of his will, though not in express terms, 
yet discernible to us by the general tenor of Scripture ; his will 
so made known to us is as much binding upon us, as if it had 
been expressly revealed. 

4 There are several instances in proof of this ; as for example, 
the cases of Polygamy, the observance of the first day of the week 
as the Christian Sabbath, and the Baptism of Infants ; in all of 
which, though we cannot allege any express warrant of God s word, 
yet we know for certain that all Christian Churches in all nations 
are agreed, and in all ages have been agreed, upon these points, 
from the first beginning of Christianity until now ; and this only 
upon the ground of the general tenor of Scripture, and the practice 
of the Primitive Church, which is justly held to be the safest inter 
preter of the sense in which those of the Apostolic age received 
the Holy Scriptures. 


we justify the Baptism of Infants? What parts 
of the Holy Scripture appear to contain intimations 
as to Christ s will concerning the order and con 
stitution of his Church l ? 

From the Old Testament. What argument 
would you derive from the Old Testament 2 ? What 
passages of the Old Testament show this 3 ? What 
further proof may be derived from the Old Testa 
ment 4 ? But are the rules which were laid down 
for those who were under the Law, necessarily 
binding upon us, who live under the greater light 
and greater freedom of the Gospel 5 ? Can any 
analogy be traced between the constitution of the 
Jewish Church and that of the Christian 6 ? 

1 Both the Old and the New Testaments. 

2 The Old Testament shows that it was the will of God under the 
Jewish Covenant, that none should take upon them to minister in 
holy things, without appointment from Himself, or from those to 
whom He delegated authority. 

3 All those which speak of the manner of the appointment, first, 
of Aaron and of his sons, and afterwards of the Priests and Levites ; 
and the strict rules which were enjoined in these matters, for the 
purpose of excluding all others from ministering. (See Exod. 
xxviii. 41. xxix. 1 4. Numbers viii. 6 8. 14, &c.) 

4 The cases of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram (Numbers xvi.); of 
Saul (1 Sam. xiii.); and of Uzziah (2 Chron. xxvi.); all of whom 
committed a great trespass in presuming to minister in holy things 
without being lawfully called. 

5 The argument does n< >t go to that extent; but this we do main 
tain, that a part of that light which we possess under the Gospel, is 
derived to us from the Law rightly interpreted; and, indeed, none 
are so unreasonable as to conclude that God did not intend that 
we should derive any guidance in such matters from the Old Testa 
ment, nor any insight into his will at all times and under all cir 
cumstances ; for upon such a supposition the Old Testament would 
become a dead letter to us. 

fi In the Jewish Church there was a threefold ministry, that of 
High Priest, Priests, and Levites; corresponding to the three 
orders of Bishops, Priests, and Deacons. 


From the New Testament. What information 
do we derive from the New Testament as to the 
order of the ministry which subsisted in the 
Christian Church in the times of the Apostles l ? 
What were those orders 2 ? Who filled the superior 
orders in the times of the Apostles 3 ? Does it 
appear from Scripture that the Apostles had power 
expressly given them to constitute other persons 
to carry on after their time the preaching of the 
Gospel, and the administration of the Sacraments 4 ? 
Repeat the promise in Matt, xxviii. 20. Why do 
you infer that this promise was not limited to the 
Apostles only 5 ? 

What were those persons called, who filled the 
ministry next in rank to the Apostles 6 ? Who 
were the first Presbyters 7 ? Is there any express 

1 We learn from the New Testament that there were three 
orders of ministers actually existing at that time. 

2 There were two gradations of inferior orders, one higher than 
the other; and there was a third order, superior to them both, with 
power to ordain the two inferior orders, and to take the general 
oversight of them and of the Church. 

3 The Apostles themselves, to whom our Lord committed both 
the first establishment and the government of his Church. 

4 In John xx. 21, Christ said to them, " As my Father hath sent 
me, even so send I you." Now it is evident that God the Father 
sent Christ to ordain them ; therefore it follows that they also 
received power from Him to ordain others. And we know that in 
fact they did ordain others, which could only have been done by 
virtue of that commission with which they were invested by Christ. 

5 Because they were only to live for a few years; whereas this 
promise reaches to the end of time. 

J Presbyters or Elders, from the Greek irpfvfivrepoc;, which 
signifies a superior, properly in age, and thence also in worth and 
gravity. From hence we derive our English word Priest. 

7 It is very probable that they were the seventy disciples men 
tioned in Luke xi. whom Christ sent forth to preach and to heal 
the sick. (See Hooker, b. v. 78.) 

F 2 


mention of tlie appointment of the seventy, or of any 
other persons to be Presbyters 1 ? Are they always 
called by the name of Presbyters or Elders 2 ? For 
whom did St. Paul send to meet him at Miletus ? 
(Acts xx. 1 7.) What are these Elders or Presbyters 
called in verse 28 ? Do we find Elders or Pres 
byters so designated elsewhere 3 ? 

What was the designation of the third or inferior 
order in the ministry 4 ? Where do we read of 
their first appointment ? (Acts vi. 1 6.) What 
was the occasion of it ? What were the duties of 
these Deacons 5 ? Does it appear that they were 
also authorized to preach and baptize 6 ? What 
other property of this order may be collected from 
Scripture 7 ? 

It appears that at this time the Apostles were the 
chief order of the Christian ministry. What passage 

1 There is no express mention of the appointment of the seventy ; 
but there is a distinct reference to the ordaining of Elders by the 
Apostles Paul and Barnabas, in every Church which they had 
founded (Acts xiv. 23); and in the Epistles to Timothy and Titus, 
and in other places, they are spoken of as an order then existing. 

2 They are sometimes called Bishops, from the Greek word 
kir iOKoiroQ, which signifies literally an overseer, and which, when 
applied to Elders, has a reference to their office, as having the over 
sight of the laity. 

3 They are so called in the Epistles to Timothy and Titus ; the 
name being at that time used to describe the nature of their duties, 
as superintendents of the laity, and being not then restricted to 
the higher order of the ministry, as it afterwards was. 

4 They were called Deacons, from the Greek word Atccov OQ, 
a servant or minister ; which name was used at first as expressing 
the nature of their duties. 

5 To take care of the funds for the poor. 

6 Yes ; as is evident from the instances of Stephen and Philip, 
who were Deacons. See Acts vi. and viii. 

7 It appears from 1 Tim. iii. 13, that the order was probationary, 
and that it led to that of the priesthood. 


shows that they ordained Deacons ? (Acts vi. 1 6.) 
That they ordained Elders or Priests ? (Acts xir. 
23.) Who succeeded to the chief oversight of the 
Church after the death of the Apostles * ? Do we 
read of any in the New Testament, who, though 
not having the name of Bishop expressly given to 
them, had the office of chief overseer delegated to 
them by Apostolic authority 2 ? What evidence 
have we that their ministry was the same as that 
with which Bishops are now invested 3 ? Is there 
mention in the New Testament of any others be 
sides Timothy and Titus who had Episcopal 
authority*? Are these persons called Bishops 5 ? 
Why do you conclude that they could not 
have been Presbyters or Deacons only 6 ? Is 

1 Those who in the course of time came to be called exclusively 
Bishops, which, as has been shown, signified overseers ; and who 
appear at first to have been invested with the office, without 
having the name distinctively applied to them. 

2 Timothy at Ephesus (1 Tim. i. 3, 4); and Titus at Crete 
(Titus i. 5). 

3 St. Paul s Epistles to Timothy and Titus show that they had 
authority to confer ordination on Priests and Deacons (Titus i. 5. 
1 Tim. iii.); to superintend their doctrine and conduct (1 Tim. i. 3. 
1 Tim. v. 19), and to regulate such matters in the Church as were 
not settled by express Divine command. And these are the acts 
and duties which Bishops are now authorized to perform. 

* In Revelations ii. and iii., written about 30 years later, there 
are passages which show that there were Bishops presiding at that 
time over the Churches of Epliesus, Smyrna, Pergamos, Thyatira, 
Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea. 

5 No ; they are called in the prophetic language, angels, which 
means messengers ; but it is evident that they were men presiding 
over these Churches. 

6 Because, in the case of Ephesus at least, we know that there 
were many Presbyters (Acts xx.),yet the message sent by Christ 
through John to the angel at Ephesus,is addressed toone individual, 
who had authority over other ministers (Rev. ii. 2). The angel of 
the Church at Thyatira is also represented as responsible for the 

F 3 


there any instance to be found in the New Tes 
tament of ordination to the ministry without 
an Apostle, or one to whom the Apostles had de 
legated Episcopal authority ? Does the Primitive 
Church furnish any such instance 1 ? 

We have se,en that the constitution of the Church 
in the Apostles time, and as regulated by them, 
was under Bishops, Priests, and Deacons. How 
are we to explain those other names and desig 
nations, which occur in the New Testament, of 
Evangelists, Pastors, and Teachers 2 ? VYhat are we 
to understand by the helps, governments, diversities 
of tongues, &c., in 1 Cor. xii. 28 30 3 ? 

Evidence from Antiquity. Does the ancient 
history of the Church confirm the conclusion drawn 
from the New Testament ; namely, that the three 
fold ministry of Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, is 
the same which existed in the time of the Apostles, 
and therefore is to be regarded as instituted by 

doctrine taught in that Church, being reproved for suffering a false 
prophetess to teach (Rev. ii. 20). 

1 " No man is able to show either Deacon or Presbyter ordained 
by Presbyters only, and his ordination accounted lawful in any 
ancient part of the Church." (Hooker, b. vii. 6.) 

3 See Ephes. iv. 11. These were designations of Offices, and 
not of Orders; and they were offices which may have been executed 
by those who were in holy orders ; as in fact they are now ; there 
being nothing inconsistent in a Bishop, Priest, or Deacon, being 
called by any of these names, when he fulfils the duties belonging 
to them. 

3 These, too, were names of Offices, and not of Orders ; and it 
appears that they were temporary, applying exclusively to the then 
state of the Church, which was miraculous, a state which was not 
always to continue, and which in fact ceased soon after the Apos 
tolic times. 


them under the guidance of the Spirit of Christ * ? 
What is the testimony of Hooker to the same pur 
pose 2 ? To whom does he say this 3 ? What further 
confirmation do we derive from Hooker 4 ? What 
is the evidence of Bishop Sanderson on this point 5 ? 
Of Bishop Taylor 6 ? How are these statements 

1 " It is evident unto all men diligently reading holy Scripture 
and ancient Authors, that from the Apostles time there have been 
these orders of Ministers in Christ s Church ; Bishops, Priests, and 
Deacons. Which offices were evermore had in such reverend esti 
mation, that no man might presume to execute any of them, except 
he were first called, tried, examined, and known to have such 
qualities as are requisite for the same ; and also by public Prayer, 
with Imposition of Hands, were approved and admitted thereunto 
by lawful Authority." (Preface to the Ordinal in the Book of Com 
mon Prayer.} 

2 \\r e require you to find out but one Church upon the face of 
the whole earth, that hath been ordered by your discipline, or hath 
not been ordered by ours, that is to say, by Episcopal Regiment, 
sithence the time that the blessed Apostles were here conversant." 
(Hooker, Preface, 4.) 

3 To the Puritans, who objected to the government of the Church 
by Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, and proposed other plans of 
their own invention. 

4 "A thousand five hundred years and upward, the Church of 
Christ hath now continued under the sacred regiment of Bishops. 
Neither for so long hath Christianity been ever planted in any 
kingdom throughout the world, but with this kind of government 
alone ; which to have been ordained of God, I am, for mine own 
part, even as resolutely persuaded as that any other kind of govern 
ment in the world whatsoever is of God." (Hooker, b. vii. 1.) 
" Wherefore let us not fear to be herein bold and peremptory, 
that if any thing in the Church s government, surely the first 
Institution of Bishops was from Heaven, was even of God j the 
Holy Ghost was the Author of it." (B. vii. 6.) 

5 " The Bishops (are) the lawful Successors of the Apostles, 
and inheritors of their power." (Sanderson on Episcopacy, part 

at 11.) 

6 " Episcopacy relies, not upon the authority of Fathers and 
Councils, but upon Scripture, upon the institution of Christ, or the 
institution of the Apostles, upon a universal tradition and a 
universal practice ; not upon the words and opinions of the doctors ; 
it hath as great a testimony as Scripture itself hath." (Bishop 
Taylor, vol. vii. Dedication, p. 17, ed. Heber.) 

F 4 


confirmed by Ignatius 1 ? What is the testimony 
of Irenseus 2 ? Of Tertullian 3 ? How is the same 
thing shown by the decrees of the Council of Nice 4 ? 
What are the three different kinds of proof by 
which it has been shown that the Episcopal form of 
government is the true government of the Church 5 ? 
But may we not conceive it possible that persons 
may be called of God by the express motion of the 

1 IGNATIUS. He says, (writing to Polycarp, who was a disciple 
of St. John,) " I would give my life for those who are obedient 
to the Bishops, Priests, and Deacons ; and let it be mine to have 
my portion in God with them." (Ep. ad Polycarp. 6.) He says 
also in another place, " without these (i. e. Bishops, Presbyters, 
and Deacons,) there can be no Church properly so called." (Ep. 
ad Trail. 3.) 

2 IREN^EUS. He gives a catalogue of the twelve Bishops of Rome 
who governed successively in that see ; saying of Linus, whom he 
calls the first of them, that " he was ordained Bishop immediately 
by the Apostles upon the first foundation of the Church, and that 
Eleutherius was the 12th Bishop from the Apostles." Irenseusalso 
says that in his early life he saw Polycarp, who, he says, was 
appointed Bishop of Smyrna by the Apostles. (Lib. iii. c. 3.) 

3 TERTULLIAN. "When your Captains, that is to say, the Deacons, 
Presbyters, and Bishops fly, who shall teach the laity that they 
must be constant ?" (De persec.) In another passage, Tertullian, 
in speaking of some who boasted that the things which they held, 
they received of such as lived with the Apostles themselves, has 
these words : " Let them therefore show the beginning of their 
Churches ; let them recite their Bishops one by one, each in such 
sort succeeding other, that the first Bishop of them have had for 
his author and predecessor some Apostle, or at least some Apostoli 
cal person who persevered with the Apostles. For thus it is that 
the Apostolical Churches trace their pedigree (census suos de- 
ferunt}. The Church of Smyrna counts up to Polycarp ordained 

by St. John ; the Church of Rome to Clement, ordained by St. 
Peter ; and so the other Churches in like manner exhibit those 
who were ordained Bishops by the Apostles, by whom the Apostoli 
cal succession was propagated and continued." (De Prcescrip. c.33. ) 

4 " Let the Deacons keep within their proper bounds, knowing 
that they are the ministers of the Bishops, and inferior to the 
Presbyters." (Cone. Nic. can. xviii.) 

5 Those derived ( 1 ) from reason and the fitness of things ; (2) from 
the Holy Scriptures; and (3) from the records of the ancient Church. 


Holy Spirit to take upon them the ministry of the 
word of God and of his sacraments l ? Would you 
then exclude from the ministry those persons who 
have this call ? because they have not been lawfully., 
that is, Episcopally ordained 2 ? What course should 
such persons take ? What conclusion do you draw 
from the whole subject 3 ? 

1 Unquestionably we may ; and moreover, in the Ordination Ser 
vice of the Church, this Divine call and motion is presupposed, 
and held to be necessary ; the first question proposed to those who 
are to be ordered being, " Do you trust that you are inwardly 
moved by the Holy Ghost to take upon you this Office and Minis 
tration, to serve God for the promoting of his glory, and the 
edifying of his people ?" 

2 By no means would I exclude those who have a real call ; but 
it is both reasonable and necessary that they should not judge of 
their own call themselves, but should submit their reasons for 
judging themselves so called, as well as their qualifications, to the 
trial and judgment of such persons as have authority given them 
in the Church for this purpose. 

3 That there was a form of Church government subsisting in the 
times of the Apostles, and instituted by them under the immediate 
teaching of Christ, the Divine Head of the Church, and by the 
guidance of his infallible Spirit ; that it consisted of the threefold 
ministry, viz. of Bishops, Priests, and Deacons ; that such form 
and constitution was exactly followed by the Christian Church 
universally iu the times immediately succeeding the Apostles ; that 
it was transmitted downwards in an unbroken succession from age 
to age ; and that in this form and by this transmission it has been 
delivered down to us, and through God s great goodness is still 
preserved to us ; and further, that in this form, as far as all 
essential things are concerned, it is the will of Christ that it should 
remain to the end of time. Therefore " it is not lawful for any 
man to take upon him the office of public preaching, or ministering 
the Sacraments in the Congregation, before he be lawfully called, 
and sent to execute the same. And those we ought to judge law 
fully called and sent, which be chosen and called to this work by 
men who have public authority given unto them in the Congrega 
tion, to call and send labourers into the Lord s vineyard," that is, 




Of speaking in the Congregation in such a tongue as the 

people under standeth. 

It is a thing plainly repugnant to the Word of God, 
and the custom of the Primitive Church, to have pub- 
lick Prayer in the Church, or to minister the Sacraments 
in a tongue not understanded of the people. 

De loquendo in Ecclesia lingua quam popnlus intelligit. 

Lingua populo non intellecta, publicas in Ecclesia 
preces peragere, aut Sacramenta administrare, verbo Dei, 
et primitivse Ecclesiae consuetudini plane repugnat. 

What is the subject of this Article ? What is 
meant by a tongue ? How does this Article differ 
from that published in 1552 1 ? Why are prayer 
and the administration of the Sacraments only 
mentioned in this Article 2 ? 

For what two reasons does this Article condemn 
the use of any unknown language in the conduct 
ing of Divine Service ? What do you understand 
by the custom of the Primitive Church 3 ? 

From what general consideration would you con 
clude that the public service of the Church ought 
to be conducted in a language understood by the 
people 4 ? In what language were the Jewish 

1 The Article published in 1552 ran thus : " It is most fit and 
most agreeable to the Word of God, that nothing be read or 
rehearsed in the Congregation in a tongue not known unto the 
people ; which St. Paul hath forbidden to be done, unless some be 
present to interpret." 

2 Because the performing of mass in Latin was particularly 
insisted upon by the Church of Rome, and because preaching was 
always in the vernacular tongue. 

3 That delivered by tradition. 

4 It is obvious to common sense that it should be so conducted, 
in order that the people may be edified. 


services conducted ? What general direction does 
St. Paul give with regard to public worship ? (1 Cor. 
xiv. 26.) What is the general argument of St. 
Paul in that chapter? 

About what time did the use of Latin, as the 
vulgar tongue, gradually cease in Europe l ? By 
whom was the use of the Latin Liturgy subse 
quently imposed 2 1 What appears to have been 
his reason ? Where was this imposition resisted 3 ? 

Evidence from Antiquity. Did the Primitive 
Church always use a language understood by the 
people 4 ? In what words does Justin Martyr 
describe the mode of conducting Divine Service 5 ? 
In what language did St. Chrysostom compose his 
Liturgy 6 ? St. Basil ? What is the testimony of 
Origen as to the practice in the 3rd century 7 ? 


Of the Sacraments. 

Sacraments ordained of Christ be not only badges or 
token of Christian men s profession, but rather they be 

1 During the course of the ninth century, in consequence of the 
irruption of the Goths, and the subversion of the Roman Empire. 

2 By Gregory the VI Ith, (Hildebrand,) in the eleventh century, 
in order to support the papal pretensions. 

1 In Spain, where the Gothic missal had already supplanted 
the Roman. 

4 Invariably so. 

5 JUSTIN MARTYR. " After this we all rise unanimously, and 
send up our prayers ; and as we said before, our prayers" being 
finished, the bread is offered, and the wine and water; and the 
President pours out prayers and thanksgivings with all his might 
(wfffj SvvaiitQ avTt$); and then the people cry out, saying, Amen. " 
(Justin Martyr. Apol. 1. 67.) 

In Greek. 

7 ORIGEN." The Grecians pray to God in the Greek, the 
Romans in the Roman, and every one in his own tongue." (Orw. 
cont. CWs. 1. 8.) 

F 6 


certain sure witnesses, and effectual signs of grace, and 
God s good will towards us, by the which He doth work 
invisibly in us, and doth not only quicken, but also 
strengthen and confirm our Faith in Him. 

There are two Sacraments ordained of Christ our 
Lord in the Gospel, that is to say, Baptism, and the 
Supper of the Lord. 

Those five commonly called Sacraments, that is to 
say, Confirmation, Penance, Orders, Matrimony, and 
Extreme Unction, are not to be counted for Sacraments 
of the Gospel, being such as have grown partly of the 
corrupt following of the Apostles, partly are states of 
life allowed in the Scriptures ; but yet have not like 
nature of Sacraments with Baptism and the Lord s 
Supper, for that they have not any visible sign or cere 
mony ordained of God. 

The Sacraments were not ordained of Christ to be 
gazed upon, or to be carried about, but that we should 
duly use them. And in such only as worthily receive 
the same they have a wholesome effect or operation : 
but they that receive them unworthily purchase to them 
selves damnation, as Saint Paul saith. 

De Sacramentis. 

Sacramenta a Christo instituta, non tantum sunt notae 
professions Christianorum, sed certa quaedam potius 
testimonial, et efficacia signa gratiae atque bonae in nos 
voluntatis Dei, per quae invisibiliteripse in nos operatur, 
nostramque fidem in se non solurn excitat, verum etiam 

Duo a Christo Domino nostro in Evangelic instituta 
sunt Sacramenta : scilicet, Baptismus, et Coena Domini. 

Quinque ilia vulgo nominata Sacramenta, scilicet, 
Confirmatio, Pcenitentia, Ordo, Matrimonium, et Ex- 
trema Unctio, pro Sacramentis Evangelicis habenda non 
sunt, ut quse partim a prava Apostolorum imitatione 
profluxerunt, partim vitae status sunt in Scripturis quidem 
probati ; sed Sacramentorum eandem cum Baptismo et 
Coena Domini rationem non habentes, ut quae signum 


aliquod visibile, seu cseremoniam, a Deo institutam, non 

Sacramenta non in hoc instituta sunt a Christo ut spec- 
tarentur, aut circumferrentur, sed ut rite illis uteremur; 
et in his duntaxat qui digne percipiimt salutarem habent 
effectum ; qui vero indigne percipiunt, damnationem 
(ut inquit Paulus) sibi ipsis acquirunt. 

How does this Article differ from that published 
in the reign of Edward VI. l ? What part was 
added in 1562 2 ? What are the different points 
asserted in this Article as it is now settled 3 ? 

What is the original meaning of the word Sacra 
ment*? How is a sacrament denned in this Article? 
What is the corresponding definition in the Church 
Catechism ? Show that these two definitions agree. 
By what does Grod work invisibly in us 5 ? What 
is the Latin version of the clause " doth not only 
quicken, but also strengthen and confirm our faith 

1 The old Article began with the words, " Our Lord Jesus Christ 
gathered his people into a Society by Sacraments, very few in 
number, most easily to be kept, and of most excellent signification, 
that is to say, Baptism and the Supper of the Lord." Then followed 
the paragraph which in this Article is the last, excepting that after 
the word "operation "this sentence was added, "Not as some say, 
ex opere operate, which terms, as they are strange and utterly un 
known to the Holy Scripture, so do they yield a sense which 
savoureth of little piety, but of much superstition." Lastly, that 
sentence followed with which this Article now begins. 

2 The paragraph relating to the five pretended Sacraments. 

3 (I) The definition of a Sacrament; (2) Those two ordinances 
are specified which answer to this definition ; (3) The five pre 
tended Sacraments are condemned; (4) The proper use of the 
Sacraments is declared. 

4 The word Sacrament (Sacramentum) originally signified an 
oath, especially the oath taken by soldiei s, the military oath of 
allegiance. This signification, after the establishment of Christi 
anity, led to the application of the word to the rites of Baptism and 
the Supper of the Lord, as those by which the Christian especially 
pledges himself to the service of Christ. 

5 The Latin version is per qua, i. e. by the which Sacraments. 


in Him * ?" To which Sacrament does the word 
quicken seem to refer ? To which does strengthen 
and confirm refer ? What are the four requisites 
in a Sacrament, as defined by the Church of Eng 
land 2 ? Show that the Sacrament of Baptism 
answers these tests 3 . Show the same thins: with 


regard to the jSacrament of the Lord s Supper. 

What are the five commonly called Sacraments 
condemned in this Article ? Why are they denied 
to be Sacraments according to the definition of the 
Church of England ? 

Confirmation. Repeat Acts viii. 12 17. Who 
preached Christ to the Samaritans ? What was 
Philip ? Did he baptize the Samaritans upon their 
profession of faith ? What was then done by the 
Church ? (verse 14.) Who were Peter and John ? 
What ordinance did they then administer? Does it 
appear from the narrative that this was a usual 
thing at that time * ? What question was put by 
St. Paul to certain disciples at Ephesus ? (Acts xix. 
2.) What rite did St. Paul afterwards administer ? 
(verse 6.) Repeat Hebrews vi. 1, 2. What prin 
ciple or clement of the doctrine of Christ does the 
Apostle mention after Baptism 5 ? Why do you 
infer that the "laying on of hands/ here alluded 

1 Nostramque fidem in se non solum excitat, verum etiam 

2 Matter, Form, Institution, and Effect. % 

3 Matter, Water. Form, "in the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost." Institution, the command of Christ 
(Matt, xxviii. 19). Effect, a death unto sin, and a new birth unto 
righteousness. (Rom. vi. 4. Col. ii. 12, &c.) 

4 It is recorded as a matter of course, without any previous 
deliberation as to its propriety. 

5 Laying on of hands, or Confirmation. 


to, must mean the rite of Confirmation l ? What 
is the comment of Calvin upon this passage 2 ? 

Did the use of Confirmation continue after the 
miraculous gifts had ceased in the Church 3 ? 
What is the testimony of Tertullian to this point ? 
Of Cyprian ? What, according to Scripture and 
Antiquity, appears to be the proper view to take 
of the rite of Confirmation 4 ? Who is the proper 
Church officer to administer it ? On what authority 
is the administration of the rite so restricted 5 ? 
What reason has been assigned for this restriction 6 ? 

1 Because it is mentioned as one of the universal elements or 
principles. It cannot therefore be understood to mean ordination, 
or healing the sick, or indeed any thing but Confirmation. 

2 " This one place abundantly testifies that the original of this 
rite or ceremony (of Confirmation, i. e.) was from the Apostles." 
(Calvin in loc. ; quoted by Bp. Jeremy Taylor, vol. xi. p. 251, ed. 

3 It was universally practised. TERTULLIAN says : " After this, 
(i.e. Baptism), the hand is laid upon us, with invocation and invi 
tation of the Holy Spirit." * * * " Then that most Holy Spirit 
cometh down willingly from the Father upon the bodies which 
have been sanctified and blessed." (De Baptism. 8.) CYPRIAN 
also says, speaking of the converts in Samaria, that having ob 
tained the legitimate Baptism of the Church, then, " what was 
wanting was done by Peter and John, namely, that prayer being 
made for them, with laying on of hands, the Holy Spirit should 
be invoked and poured upon them ; which now also is done among 
us; those baptized in the Church, being brought to the Bishops of 
the Church, and by our prayer and laying on of hands they receive 
the Holy Ghost, and are perfected with the seal of the Lord." 
(Ep. 73, 8.) 

* It is an Apostolic ordinance, the completion of the Sacrament 
of Baptism. 

5 That of Scripture and the Primitive Church. 

6 The reason why Bishops alone have authority to confirm is 
not because the benefit or grace of Confirmation is greater than 
that of Baptism ; but rather inasmuch as by the Sacrament of 
Baptism, men are admitted into Christ s Church, if he baptizes 
them not to whom the chief authority of their souls belongs, yet 
for honour s sake, and in token of his spiritual authority over 
them, the performance of this annexed ceremony should besought 
for at his hands. (See Hooker, book v. 66.) 


What is the answer of St. Jerome to the inquiry 
why Bishops alone have authority to administer 
this rite l ? Why is Confirmation severed from Bap 
tism 2 ? Why do you conclude that Confirmation is 
not to be counted for a Sacrament of the Gospel 3 ? 
Penance. What is the derivation of the word 
penance * ? What is the teaching of the Church of 
Rome with regard to penance 5 ? On what grounds 
do you conclude that it is no Sacrament 6 ? What 
is the first part of penance, according to the Church 
of Rome ? Does the Church of England acknow 
ledge the necessity of contrition ? How does she 
differ from the Church of Rome on this head 7 ? 

1 ST. JEROME. " If you ask where it is written ; it is answered, 
it is written in the Acts of the Apostles. But if there were no 
authority of Scripture for it, the consent of the whole Christian 
world in this article ought to prevail as a commandment." (Jerome, 
Dial. adr. Lucifer.) 

2 It arose in the first instance from the circumstance of ministers 
of inferior degree not being permitted to confirm, and now from 
the circumstance of persons being baptized when infants, at which 
age they may be admitted into God s family, though they cannot 
in their own persons perform the conditions of membership. 

3 Because it does not answer the test, being not ordained by 
Christ himself. 

4 It is derived fromp&nitentia, the Latin translation of the word 
Utrdvoia, which means a change of mind. 

5 That it is a Sacrament of remitting sins after Baptism, and 
that it consists of the following parts (1) Contrition, which in 
cludes hearty sorrow for sin, and firm purpose of amendment. 
There is, however, an imperfect contrition devised by them, called 
attrition, which means sorrow for sin, without a resolution to sin 
no more, and this they consider sufficient to make the Sacrament 
effectual. (2) Confession, which is to accuse ourselves of all our 
sins to the priest. (3) Absolution, which is pronounced by the 
priest judicially upon confession made to him. (4) Satisfaction. 
After the guilt of sin is remitted, there remains some penance to 
be undergone, decided upon by the priest, according to the nature 
of the offence. This, however, may be commuted by alms, or by 
fasting, or by the payment of money. If the party dies before the 
penance is completed, he goes into purgatory. 

6 It has no outward visible sign ordained by Christ. 

7 She denies the efficacy of attrition. 


What is the second part of penance ? What is the 
doctrine of the Church of England with regard to 
confession to a priest 1 ? What, according to the 
Church of Rome, is the third part of penance? 
What is the doctrine of the Church of England 
with reirard to absolution 2 ? What is the fourth 
part of the Romish Sacrament of penance ? How 
does the Church of England differ from that of 
Rome with regard to satisfaction 3 / How was this 
word employed by the ancient Church ? 

What was the origin of penance 4 ? Why was 
private confession adopted ? At what period was 
penance itself made secret ? When was it com 
muted ? 

Orders. What is the doctrine of the Church of 
Rome with regard to Orders 5 f Upon what grounds 

1 " As for private confession, abuses and errors set apart, we 
condemn it not, but leave it at liberty." (Jevel. Apol. 156, quoted 
by Hooker.) See also the Exhortation to the Holy Communion, in 
the Book of Common Prayer, and the Order for the Visitation of ike 
^ -If. 

2 God " has given power and commandment to his Ministers to 
declare and pronounce to his people, being penitent, the absolu 
tion and remission of their sins ;" but the absolution so given is 
ministerial and precatory, and not judicial. 

3 The Church of England rejects satisfaction in the sense in 
which it is intended by the Church of Rome ; and though the 
early Fathers used this word, their own writings show that they 
merely intended by it whatever a penitent should do in humbling 
himself to God, and testifying his repentance by his deeds. 

* In its origin, penance was public, and it arose from the cases 
of apostasy in the times of the persecutions. Afterwards, as the 
Church increased, it was applied as a remedy to the disorders and 
corruptions which sprang up within its pale. This led to the 
making confession a private matter, in order to avoid scandal 
against the Church ; soon afterwards, in the 5th century, penance 
itself was private, and towards the end of the 8th century it first 
began to be commuted. 

That the ordination of ministers is a Sacrament, founded 
upon the institution of Christ and his Apostles. In the earliest 
ages, ministers were set apart to their office by prayer and the im- 


lias it been attempted to show that this is a Sacra 
ment l ? Show that it is not a Sacrament according 
to the definition of the Church of England 2 


In what other respects does the Church of 
England differ from the Church of Rome with 
regard to Orders 3 ? 

By whom was Timothy ordained ? (2 Tim. i. 6.) 
Who assisted at his ordination ? (1 Tim. iv. 14.) 
Is this primitive custom observed by the Church 
of England ? 

Matrimony. How is the rite of matrimony 
described in a subsequent part of this Article ? 
What is the teaching of the Church of Rome with 
regard to Matrimony * ? Upon what authority has 
it been attempted to show that matrimony is a 
Sacrament? (Ephes. v. 32.) What is the word 
translated mystery in the Greek 5 ? What is the 

postion of hands ; but afterwards, other rites were added ; and in 
the 10th century, the practice arose of delivering the sacred vessels 
to the priests, and at the same time words were used, which 
assigned to them the power of offering up sacrifices to God. After 
this, five other orders were added to the primitive orders of 
Bishops, Priests, and Deacons namely, Subdeacons, Acolyths, 
Exorcists, Readers, and Doorkeepers. [It should be observed, 
however, that in the Church of Rome the three primary orders 
are those of Priest, Deacon, and Subdeacon ; Bishop and Presbyter 
being held by them to be of the same order ; so that they make 
the number of their oruers to be seven.] 

1 That it was instituted by Christ. 

2 Though Christ ordained his Apostles, and gave them autho 
rity to ordain others, yet we read of no outward and visible sign 
appointed by Him for this purpose, nor did Christ and his Apos 
tles make use of the same ceremony. Christ breathed on his 
Apostles ; the Apostles laid their hands on those whom they or 

3 The Church of England rejects the inferior orders, which 
cannot be traced up to the primitive times ; nor does she recognize 
the sacrificial character of the Priest. 

* That it is a Sacrament instituted by God, and not devised by 
man. 5 


version of this passage in the Vulgate 1 ? Is the 
word mystery applied in Scripture to other things 
besides Sacraments? (1 Tim. iii. 16. Rev. xvii. 5.) 
How do you understand the words " this is a great 
mystery" in Ephes. v. 32 2 ? When was matrimony 
instituted 3 ? Upon what general ground do you 
conclude that it is no Sacrament * ? 

What consequence has been drawn from making 
matrimony a Sacrament 5 ? Does Scripture sanc 
tion a divorce under certain circumstances ? (Matt, 
v. 32.) What is the teaching of the Church of 
England with regard to matrimony 6 ? By whom 
ought it to be administered 7 ? 

Extreme unction. What do you mean by ex 
treme unction 8 ? Upon what grounds has it been 
attempted to maintain that this is a Sacrament ? 
(James v. 14, 15.) What symbolical action was 
sometimes performed by the Apostles in healing 
the sick? (Mark vi. 13.) Was this oil the symbol 
of a benefit wrought on the soul, or of one wrought 
on the body 9 ? Why do you conclude that extreme 

Hoc est magnum sacramentum. 

2 When St. Paul said, " this is a great mystery," he was speak 
ing concerning Christ and the Church ; the words must therefore 
be applied to that mystical union of Christ and his Church, of 
which the marriage bond was a figure. 

:< In the time of man s inuocency." 

It does not answer the test. 

That the marriage bond is indissoluble. 

That it is an honourable estate, instituted of God, but not an 
outward sign of an inward grace. 

7 Being a holy estate, instituted by God, it should be adminis 
tered by none but his authorized ministers. 

The anointing of the sick, with prayer for the forgiveness of 
their sins, administered to them shortly before their death, and 
therefore called extreme unction. 
9 One wrought upon the body. 


unction is no Sacrament ? What remarkable 
difference is there between the results of this rite 
as performed in the Apostolic times, and as now 
practised by the Church of Rome 2 ? When do we 
find the first mention of this rite as unconnected 
with miraculous gifts 3 .? When do we find it 
alluded to again 4 ? For what purpose does it 
appear to have been then used 5 ? 

What are the two assertions in the last paragraph 
of this Article? To which Sacrament does the 
first assertion refer? Is there any authority in 
Scripture, or in the Primitive Church, for carrying 
about the Sacrament of the Lord s Supper? 

In what persons only, have the Sacraments a 
wholesome effect and operation? What do we 
mean by worthily receiving c ? Against what error 
is this assertion directed 7 ? 

Evidence from Antiquity. What appears to 
have been the number of Sacraments acknowledged 
in the Primitive Church 8 ? How do you account 

1 Because it was not instituted by Christ, and it appears to 
have been merely an outward sign which accompanied the exercise 
of the miraculous gifts, and which therefore ceased when these 
gifts ceased. 

2 In the former case, the sick were restored to health ; in the 
latter, it immediately precedes their death. 

3 In the 5th century, by Pope Innocent I. 
* Not till the 7th or 8th century. 

5 The prayers which then accompanied it show that at that 
time its object was the recovery of the sick. 
With repentance and faith. 

7 Against the error that the Sacraments have a mechanical 
effect, ex opere operato, i. e. that the mere receiving of them con 
veys grace, without reference to the faith of the recipient. 

8 The two Sacraments of Baptism and the Lord s Supper. 


for their not being distinctly determined * ? What 
Sacraments does Justin Martyr speak of 2 ? What 
does Tertullian? What is the testimony of St. 
Augustine 3 ? 

When was it first announced that there were 
seven Sacraments 4 ? By what Council was this 
assertion subsequently confirmed 5 ? 


Of the unworthiness of the Ministers, which hinders not 
the effect of the Sacrament. 

Although in the visible Church the evil be ever min 
gled with the good, and sometimes the evil have chief 
authority in the Ministration of the Word and Sacra 
ments ; yet forasmuch as they do not the same in their 
own name, but in Christ s, and do minister by his 
commission and authority, we may use their Ministry, 
both in hearing the Word of God, and in receiving of 
the Sacraments. Neither is the effect of Christ s ordi 
nance taken away by their wickedness, nor the grace 
of God s gifts diminished from such as by faith and 

1 Because at that time there was no controversy on the 

2 JUSTIN MARTYR. He speaks only of two sacraments, Baptism 
and the Eucharist. (Apol. 1. 61.) Tertullian joins these two 
together, and says nothing of any more. (De Corona Militis, 
c. 3.) 

3 ST. AUGUSTINE. " But the Lord Himself, and the Apostolical 
doctrine delivered instead of many, but some few tilings, and those 
most easy to be performed, most noble to be understood, and most 
chaste in their observation, such as are the Sacrament of Bap 
tism, and the celebration of the body and blood of the Lord." 
(De doctr. Christ. 1. 3.) 

4 In the 12th century, by Peter Lombard. 
* The Council of Trent. 


rightly do receive the Sacraments ministered unto 
them ; which be effectual, because of Christ s institu 
tion and promise, although they be ministered by evil 

Nevertheless, it appertained! to the discipline of the 
Church, that inquiry be made of evil Ministers, and 
that they be accused by those that have knowledge of 
their offences ; *and finally, being found guilty, by just 
judgment be deposed. 

De vi institutionum divinarum, quod earn non tollat 

malitia Ministrorum. 

Quamvis in Ecclesia visibili, bonis mali semper sunt 
admixti, atque interdum ministerio verbi et Sacramen- 
torum administrationi praesint ; tamen cum non suo 
sed Christi nomine agant, ej usque mandato et aucto- 
ritate ministrent, illorum ministerio uti licet, cum in 
verbo Dei audiendo, turn in Sacramentis percipiendis. 
Neque per illorum malitiam effectus institutorum Christi 
tollitur, aut gratia donorum Dei minuitur, quoad eos 
qui fide et rite sibi oblata percipiunt, quag propter 
institutionem Christi et promissionem efficacia sunt, 
licet per malos administrentur. 

Ad Ecclesiae tamen disciplinam pertinet, ut in malos 
ministros inquiratur, accusenturque ab his, qui eorum 
flagitia noverint, atque tandem justo convicti judicio 

Against what error is this Article directed l ? 
"What do you mean by the Visible Church in this 
Article 2 ? What parables of our Lord exemplify 
the truth that the evil are ever mingled with the 
good in the Visible Church ? What is the Latin 

1 That of supposing that the unworthiness of a Minister hinders 
the effect of the ordinances administered by him. 

2 The Holy Catholic Church here on earth. 


version of tlie expression " have chief authority l ?" 
What is the reason assigned in this Article why 
we may use the ministry of evil men 2 ? 

The unworthiness of Ministers hinders not the 
effect of the Sacraments administered by them. 

What direction did our Lord give to his disciples 
with regard to the teaching of the Scribes and 
Pharisees ? (Matt, xxiii. 2, 3.) In what sense did 
they sit in Moses seat 3 ? How does it appear 
that they were unworthy ? But was it neverthe 
less the duty of the people to attend upon their 
ministry? Repeat John vi. 70. To whom did 
Christ refer? Did our Lord know the charac 
ter of Judas before He chose him ? Did the 
wickedness of Judas invalidate his acts as an 
Apostle? What do you infer from these ex 
amples ? 

The Romish Church has taught that the inten 
tion of the minister is necessary in order to make 
the Sacraments valid. What is meant by this 4 ? 
Is this a question within the limits of human 
investigation ? What evils result from the main 
tenance of this opinion 5 ? 

What is asserted in the last paragraph of this 

1 The Latin word is prcesint, which would be more properly 
translated, hate the charge of, or, are intrusted irith. 

2 Because they exercise the ministry, not in their own name, 
but in Christ s. 

3 They were his successors in the office of teachers of religion. 

4 That the Sacraments are not valid, unless the person admi 
nistering them intends that they should be so. 

5 It tends to throw doubt and suspicion upon the whole system 
of Christianity, because no one can discern the heart ; and there 
fore, if this opinion be true, no one can certainly tell whether he 
has really been baptized. 


Article ? Is it agreeable to reason that evil minis 
ters, when proved to be such, should be deposed ? 
What was the character of Eli s sons ? (1 Sam. 
ii. 12.) Did Eli take the proper steps to restrain 

them ? What was threatened to Eli in conse 
quence ? (1 Sam. iii. 11.) What was the sin of 
Nadab and Abilm ? (Levit. x. 1.) How was that 
sin punished ? What reason was assigned for this 
severe visitation ? (Levit. x. 3.) Who was Timo 
thy ? What directions were given to him with re 
gard to the discipline of the Church ? (1 Tim. 
v. 1. 19, 20. vi. 35.) 

What consideration especially aggravates the 
sins committed by evil ministers 1 ? 

Evidence from Antiquity. By whom was the 
opinion condemned in this Article first main 
tained 2 ? Who opposed that opinion 3 ? Quote a 
testimony from St. Augustine to this point *. What 
is the evidence of St. Chrysostom 5 ? What parti 
cular circumstances appear to have revived this 
opinion in the 1 6th century fl ? 

Has it always appertained to the discipline of 

1 That they are committed by those whose special office and 
work it is to destroy sin. 

2 By the Donatists, in the early part of the fifth century. 

3 Augustine, Bishop of Hippo. 

4 AUGUSTINE. " Remember that the manners of evil men do 
not hinder the sacraments of God, so as to make them either not 
to be at all, or less holy." (Aug. cont. literas Petiliani, 1. 2. [110. 
vol. ix.]) 

5 ST. CHRYSOSTOM. " God is wont to work, even by such as are 
unworthy ; and the grace of Baptism is not at all hindered by the 
life of the priest." (Chrysost. in 1 Cor. Horn. 8.) 

6 The gross vices practised by the clergy at that time. 


the Church to make inquiry of evil ministers l ? 
Show this from St. Cyprian 2 . 


Of Baptism. 

Baptism is not only a sign of profession, and mark 
of difference, whereby Christian men are discerned 
from others that be not christened, but it is also a sign 
of Regeneration or new Birth, whereby, as by an in 
strument, they that receive Baptism rightly are grafted 
into the Church ; the promises of forgiveness of sin, 
and of our adoption to be the sons of God by the 
Holy Ghost, are visibly signed and sealed ; Faith is 
confirmed, and Grace increased by virtue of prayer 
unto God. The Baptism of young Children is in any 
wise to be retained in the Church, as most agreeable 
with the institution of Christ. 

De Baptismo. 

Baptismus non est tantum professions signum, ac 
discriminis nota, qua Christian! a non Christianis dis- 
cernantur, sed etiam est signum regeneration is, per 
quod, tanquam per instrumentum, recte baptismum 
suscipientes, Ecclesise inseruntur, promissiones de re- 
missione peccatorum, atque adoptione nostra in filios 
Dei per Spiritum Sanctum visibiliter obsignantur, fides 
confirmatur, et vi divinse invocations gratia augetur. 

Baptismus parvulorum omnino in Ecclesia retinen- 
dus est, ut qui cum Christi institutione optime con- 

1 Always ; as may be seen from the decrees of the Councils. 

2 ST. CYPRIAN. " As to Felicissimus the deacon, let him know 
that he is cast out from among us ; inasmuch as besides his frauds 
and robberies, of which we are very certain that he is guilty, he 
is also charged with adultery." (Cypr. Epist. 38. Ep. 41. Oxf. Ed.) 



What is the subject of tins Article ? What is 
the origin of the word Baptism l ? How is Bap 
tism defined in this Article ? What is the Latin 
version of the words " whereby Christian men are 
discerned from others that be not christened 2 ?" 
What do you rnean by a sign 3 ? In what sense is 
Baptism a sign * ? What is the meaning of the 
word "regeneration 5 ?" What is the meaning of the 
expression, "they that receive baptism rightly* t" 
Distinguish between rightly and worthily 1 . What 
passage of Scripture illustrates the expression, 
" are grafted into the Church V (Rom. xi. 24, &c.) 
How is the same thing expressed in other words 
in the Church Catechism 8 ? What particular bene- 
ts are declared to be promised in Baptism ? What 
do you understand by grace 9 ? What then are 
the three benefits conferred in Baptism 10 ? 

What is the Latin version of the words, " as most 
agreeable with the institution of Christ 11 ?" 

1 It is derived from the Greek word /3a7rrj <o, to immerse; though 
ill the sacred writers the word is used to denote any washing, whe 
ther by dipping or sprinkling. (Vide Mark vii. 4. Luke xi. 38.) 

2 Q,ua Christian! a non Christianis discernantur. 

3 A sign may denote either a mark of something that has taken 
place, or a mark of something to be conferred. 

a Of something to be conferred. 

5 New Birth. 

* In the way appointed by Christ. 

7 Rightly refers to the manner of administering ; worthily to the 
disposition of the recipient. 

8 " Wherein I was a member of Christ." 

9 The holy principles and desires given to us by the Holy Spirit. 

10 Forgiveness of sins ; adoption into the family of God ; and 
the sanctifying influences of the Holy Spirit. 

11 " Ut qui cum institutione Christ! optiine congruat ;" as is very 
accordant with the institution of Christ. 


The Sacrament of Baptism. Define a Sacra 
ment. What is the matter, or outward sign, in 
Baptism ? What is the form 2 ? What is the 
institution*? What is the effect*? How is the 
effect, or the inward grace, of Baptism expressed in 
the Church Catechism ? Repeat our Lord s words 
in John iii. 3. How does He further explain his 
meaning in the 5th verse ? How does St. Paul 
describe Baptism ? (Titus iii. 5.) How is God 
said to purify and cleanse his Church ? (Ephe- 
sians v. 26.) Show the analogy between the na 
tural and the spiritual birth 5 . Show from Scrip 
ture that the forgiveness of sins is connected with 
Baptism. (Acts ii. 38.) How is the same thing 
implied by Ananias? (Acts xxii. 16.) How does 
it appear that by means of Baptism we are admitted 
into the family of God ? (Gal. iii. 26.) How are 
these words further explained in the following 
verse ? "What is the origin of the expression 
" have put on Christ 6 ?" What is the third benefit 

1 Water. 

2 In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 

3 The command of Christ (Matt, xxviii. 19). 

4 Regeneration, including the three benefits stated above. 

"As we are not naturally men without birth, so neither are 
we Christian men in the eye of the Church of God, but by new 
birth ; nor according to the manifest ordinary course of Divine 
dispensation new born, but by that Baptism which both declareth 
and maketh us Christians." (Hooker, book v. 60.) 

The expression " have put on " is a technical term ; the per 
son about to be baptized went down into the water with his ordi 
nary clothes, and, upon coming up again from the water, received 
a new robe, called the chrysom. 

G 2 


conferred in Baptism ? Show that the gift of the 
Holy Spirit is connected with Baptism in Scrip 
ture. (Acts ii. 38, last clause.) What does St. 
Paul connect with the washing of regeneration ? 
(Titus iii. 5, last clause.) How is our Lord s bap 
tism distinguished from that of John ? (Matt, 
iii. 11.) 

Are the benefits conferred in Baptism absolute 
or conditional ? What is covenanted on the part 
of those to whom they are promised l ? What do 
these conditions require from every baptized per 
son, in order that he may receive the full privi 
leges of Baptism 2 ? What is promised to him in 
order that he may perform them 3 ? How is this 
work of the Spirit distinguished from regenera 
tion ? (Titus iii. 5.) How is the same distinction 
drawn in the Collect for Christmas Day * ? 

Infant Baptism. What reason is given in this 
Article why Infant Baptism is to be retained in the 
Church ? Show how it agrees with that institu 
tion 5 . What was the rite of admission into the 
Jewish church ? At what age was that rite ap 
pointed to be administered ? What conclusion do 
you draw from hence with regard to the Baptism of 

1 Repentance, faith, and obedience. 

2 A hearty forsaking of sin, a stedfast belief in the promises 
of God, and a sincere obedience to his will. 

3 The gift of the Holy Spirit. 

4 " Grant that we, being regenerate, and made thy children by 
adoption and grace, may daily be renewed by thy Holy Spirit." 

5 Nations consist of persons of all ages, and therefore infants 
as well as adults must have been included in the command. 


Infants J ? What is the passage of Scripture which 
is selected as the Gospel in the service for the Bap 
tism of Infants ? (Mark x. 1316.) What infer 
ence does the Church draw from these words in 
the exhortation which follows? Repeat 1 Cor. 
vii. 14. With regard to what case does St. Paul 
give directions in that passage ? What benefit 
does he mention incidentally as arising to the chil 
dren of such parents, supposing them to remain 
together ? What is the inference ? How are we 
to account for there being no direct command in 
Scripture for baptizing Infants 2 ? Was circumcision 
of the nature of a covenant ? Did this circum 
stance prevent the Jewish child from being admit 
ted into that covenant before he was able to per 
form the conditions ? What provision is made in 
the Christian Church to meet this difficultv 3 ? Are 


children bound to perform the promise so made 
for them, when they come to age ? Why 4 ? What 
is the nature of the promise made by godfathers 
and godmothers in baptism 5 ? 

1 If infants were admitted into the family of God under the 
rigorous covenant of the Law, d fortiori may we expect to find that 
they are capable of admission into that family under the covenant 
of grace. 

* Partly because it was a thing to which the Jews were already 
accustomed in the case of circumcision, and partly because for 
obvious reasons those first admitted into the Church must have 
been adults. 

3 Godfathers and godmothers are appointed, who promise in 
behalf of the child. 

* Because all men are bound to do the will of God as soon 
as ever it is made known to them ; and because none can partake 
of the benefits, who do not stand to the conditions of the covenant. 

5 They promise that the child shall be instructed in his duties, 
as soon as he shall be able to learn. 

G 3 


Evidence from Antiquity. Did the Primitive 
Christians consider that Regeneration was the effect 
of Baptism l ? What is the language of Justin 
Martyr on this point 2 ? Of St. Chrysostom 3 ? Of 
St. Athanasius 4 ? 

Does it appear from the early Fathers that 
Infant Baptism was generally practised 5 ? [What 
is the testimony of Justin Martyr to this point 6 ?] 
Of Irenams 7 ? Of Origen 8 ? Of St. Cyprian 9 ? 
[What question was raised in the African council 

1 They all speak of Baptism as the sign and seal of regeneration. 

2 JUSTIN MARTYR. " It is unlawful for any to partake of the 
Eucharist, save him who believes in the truth of our doctrines, 
and who has been washed in the bath for the remission of sins, 
and for regeneration." (Just. Mart. Apol. i. 66.) 

3 CHRYSOSTOM. "By means of water we are regenerated" 
(Chrysost. in Joh. Hoin. 85.) 

4 ATHANASIUS. " He that is baptized puts off the old man, and 
is renewed, as being regenerated (avuQtv ytwrjQtig) by the grace 
of the Spirit." (Athan. in illud, " Quicunque dixerit," &c.) 

5 [We find it alluded to as the common usage of the Church, 
derived from the institution or practice of the Apostles.] 

6 [JUSTIN MARTYR. He speaks of baptism being to Christians 
in the stead of circumcision.] 

7 IREN^EUS. " Christ came to save all men by Himself ; all, I 
mean, who by Him are born again to God ; infants, children, 
boys, youths, and older men ; therefore He passed through every 
age." (Irenceus, ii. c. 22.) 

8 ORIGEN. " Young children are baptized into the remission 
of sins." (Origen in Luc. Horn. 14.) 

9 CYPRIAN. " Moreover, if to the greatest sinners, and to thosa 
who have offended God a long time since, yet afterwards believe 
in Him, remission of sins is granted, and no one is debarred 
from receiving baptism and grace ; how much more ought not 
these benefits to be denied loan infant, who being but newly born 
hath as yet no way sinned, except that, being born in the flesh 
according to Adam, he hath contracted the contagion of the old 
death from his very birth, who is the more easily admitted to 
receive remission of sins upon this very account, because he hath 
no sins of his own to be remitted, but only those of others." 
(Cyprian, Ep. 59.) 


held under Cyprian A.D. 253 3 ? How was it de 
cided ? What inference do you draw ?] What 
direction is given in the Apostolical Constitu 
tions a ? 


Of the Lord s Supper. 

The Supper of the Lord is not only a sign of the love 
that Christians ought to have among themselves one to 
another ; but rather is a Sacrament of our Redemption 
by Christ s death : insomuch that to such as rightly, 
worthily, and with faith, receive the same, the Bread 
which we break is a partaking of the Body of Christ ; 
and likewise the Cup of Blessing is a partaking of the 
Blood of Christ. 

Transubstantiation (or the change of the substance of 
Bread and Wine) in the Supper of the Lord, cannot be 
proved by holy Writ ; but is repugnant to the plain 
words of Scripture, overthroweth the nature of a Sacra 
ment, and hath given occasion to many superstitions. 

1 [A Council was held A.D. 253 in Africa under Cyprian, at 
which 66 bishops were present. Amongst the subjects pro 
pounded for decision at this Council, one was whether the analogy 
of circumcision was to be so strictly adhered to, that baptism 
should not be administered to infants till the eighth day. Cyprian 
and the bishops with him decided that children might be baptized 
under eight days old ; and they held that to suffer a child to die 
unbaptized was to endanger its salvation. It appears therefore 
from hence that there was then no doubt or uncertainty as to the 
duty of baptizing infants; the only question being, whether it was 
right to baptize them before the eighth day from their birth.] 

2 " He who says, when I die, I will be baptized, in order that 
I may not sin and defile my baptism ; that man is ignorant to 
wards God, and forgetful of his nature. Tarry not to turn to the 
Lord, but baptize even your children, and bring them up in the 
nurture and admonition of the Lord ; for He says, Suffer little chil 
dren to come unto me, and forbid them not. " (Const. Apost. 1. vi. c. 1 5. ) 

G 4 


The Body of Christ is given, taken, and eaten in the 
Supper, only after an heavenly and spiritual manner. 
And the mean whereby the body of Christ is received 
and eaten in the Supper is Faith. 

The Sacrament of the Lord s Supper was not by 
Christ s ordinance reserved, carried about, lifted up, 
or worshipped. 

De Ccena Domini. 

Coena Domini non est tantum signum mutuae bene- 
volentiae Christianorum inter sese, verum potius est 
Sacramentum nostrae per mortem Christi redemptionis. 

Atque adeo, rite, digne, et cum fide sumentibus, 
panis quern frangimus est communicatio corporis Christi ; 
similiter poculum benedictionis est communicatio san- 
guinis Christi. 

Panis et vini transubstantiatio in Eucharistia, ex sacris 
literis probari non potest. Sed apertis Scripturae ver- 
bis adversatur, Sacramenti naturam evertit, et multa- 
rum superstition um dedit occasionem. 

Corpus Christi datur, accipitur, et manducatur in 
Coena, tantum coelesti et spiritual! ratione. Medium 
autem quo corpus Christi accipitur et manducatur in 
Coena, fides est. 

Sacramentum Eucharistiae ex institutione Christi non 
servabatur, circumferebatur, elevabatur, nee adorabatur. 

What are the two Sacraments ordained by Christ? 
By what other name is the Lord s Supper some 
times called l ? What authority have we for call 
ing this Sacrament the Lord s Supper? (1 Cor. 
xi. 20.) What low view have some persons held 
with regard to the Sacrament of Baptism 2 ? What 

1 The Eucharist, or giving of thanks; so called because our Lord 
introduced the ordinance with a form of thanksgiving. It is also 
called the Holy Communion, from the expressions in 1 Cor. x. 16. 

2 That it is merely a sign of profession, and mark of difference. 
See page 121, Art. 2?. 


with regard to the Supper of the Lord l ? What is 
it the design of this Article to show 2 ? How is 
this expressed in the Article ? In what sense do 
you understand the word Sacrament in that pas 
sage 3 ? To whom are the bread and wine in the 


Lord s Supper a partaking of the body and blood 
of Christ ? Distinguish between rightly and 
worthily *. What is meant by the expression, " a 
partaking of the body of Christ 5 ? J 

What is the Matter in the Lord s Supper ? The 
Form? The Institution? (1 Cor. xi. 24, 25.) 
The Effect 6 ? How would you distinguish between 
the effects of the two Sacraments upon the worthy 
recipient 7 ? For example : there is a difference 
between granting and renewing a lease. Which 
would be represented by Baptism ? Which by the 
Lord s Supper? Repeat Luke xxii. 19, last clause. 
What do you infer from this expression with regard 
to the Lord s Supper 8 ? Why is not this men 
tioned in the Article 9 ? Hepeat Matt. xxvi. 28. 
How does St. Paul express the benefits of the 
Lord s Supper to the faithful? (1 Cor. x. 16.) 
What ancient custom is referred to in that pas- 

That it is merely a sign of remembrance, and an act of love. 
That it is both a sign and a means of grace. 
3 In the sense in which it is defined in the Church Catechism. 
1 See page 122, note 7- 

A partaking of that redemption which the body of Christ has 
obtained. 6 The same benefits enumerated in Baptism. 

7 By the Sacrament of Baptism he is admitted into the covenant, 
which in the Lord s Supper he ratifies and confirms. 
That it is an act of commemoration. 
Probably because it was never disputed. 

G 5 


sage 1 ? How is the same allusion made else 
where? (1 Cor. v. 7.) How does our Lord show 
the necessity of thus spiritually partaking of Him? 
(John vi. 5356.) 

Transubstantiation. What is meant by tran- 
substantiation 2 ? How has it been attempted to 
reconcile this doctrine with reason 3 ? For what 
cause is this doctrine condemned in this Article ? 
Upon what Scripture authority do the Romanists 
rest their belief in this doctrine ? (Matt. xxvi. 26, 
last clause, and John vi. 53, &c.) 

Repeat Matt. xxvi. 26, last clause. Had Christ s 
body been literally broken at that time ? Or his 
blood shed ? What ordinance was He celebrating 
at the time that He instituted this Sacrament? 
How was the lamb in that ordinance described ? 
Supposing the words of the institution were to be 
understood in their literal sense, what would the cup 
become ? What does our Lord call the wine after it 
has been consecrated ? (Matt. xxvi. 29.) And St. 
Paul ? (1 Cor. xi. 26.) Repeat 1 Cor. xi. 29. What 
is meant by the expression "not discerning the 

1 That of feasting upon the victim in order to partake of the 
benefit of the sacrifice. 

2 The doctrine that in the Sacrament of the Lord s Supper the 
bread and wine are actually converted into the flesh and blood of 

3 It is assumed that all material substances consist of two parts, 
substance and accidents ; the substance being something invisible 
and impalpable, the accidents both visible and tangible. It is 
then asserted that this substance not coming under the cognizance 
of our senses, may undergo a transformation, the accidents still 
remaining the same. 


Lord s body l V In what sense do we understand 
the words " This is my body 2 T 

Repeat John vi. 53. Is it quite clear that these 
words refer to the Holy Communion ? Show from 


our Lord s own words, in the same chapter, that it 
could not be in a literal sense that he spake of 
giving his flesh to eat. (verse 63.) 

How does this doctrine overthrow the nature of 
a Sacrament 3 ? To what superstitions has it given 
rise 4 ? 

History of Transubstantiation. When did dis 
cussion first arise as to the manner of Christ s pre 
sence in this Sacrament 5 ? What was the occasion 
of it ? What progress did the doctrine make in 
the 9th century 6 ? How long a period may be said 
to have elapsed from the institution of the Lord s 
Supper before disputation arose as to the manner 
of Christ s presence in that Sacrament 7 ? When 
did the controversy again revive 8 ? When was the 

1 Not distinguishing that consecrated bread and wine, which 
represents Christ s body, from ordinary food. 

2 This represents my body, and spiritually becomes such to the 
faithful recipient. 3 It destroys the outward and visible sign. 

4 See the last paragraph of this Article. 

5 In the eighth century controversy arose about image-worship, 
in which it was declared that the consecrated elements were the 
image of Christ. This opinion was, however, condemned by the 
Council of Nice. 

In the ninth century the doctrine of the bodily presence was 
openly asserted by Paschase Radbert, a French abbot ; but he 
was refuted by several eminent writers of that time, such as Raban 
Maui-, Bertram, and John Scot. The object of Bertram s book 
was to explain the difference between figurative and literal expres 
sions; and his doctrine with regard to the Lord s Supper was the 
same with that of the Church of England. 

Eight hundred years. 

8 About the middle of the eleventh century. The doctrine 

G 6 


doctrine of the real corporeal presence first publicly 
decreed to be a doctrine of Scripture 1 ? When 
was the term Transubstantiation first known 2 ? 

How is the Body of Christ said in this Article 
to be given, taken, and eaten ? Against what doc 
trine does this assertion appear to be directed 3 ? 
What is the difference between transubstantiation 
and consubstantiation 4 ? What is the mean by 
which the Body of Christ is received 5 ? How is 
this expressed in other words in the Church Cate 
chism ? To illustrate this by Scripture ; Christ is 
said to be our life. Why is He so called 6 ? What 
is the mean by which He becomes our life ? The 
bread and the wine in the Lord s Supper are said 
to be His Body and Blood. Why are they so 
called 7 ? How do they become so to us ? 

What is meant by reserving the Sacrament 8 ? 
Why is this practice condemned 9 ? Was it an 
ancient practice ? What appears to have been 

appears tobavemadewayduringthe ignorance of the tenth century; 
and in the eleventh, Bruno, Bishop of Angiers, and Berengarius, 
his archdeacon, maintained the doctrine of Bertram ; Berengar, 
however, recanted two or three times. 

1 In the year 1215, by a decree of the third Lateran council. 

2 In the 13th century, having been invented by Stephen, Bishop 
of Autun. 

3 That of consubstantiation. 

4 The doctrine of transubstantiation is that the body and blood 
of Christ are the bread and wine; of consubstantiation, that they 
are with the bread and wine. 

5 Faith. 6 Because through Him we obtain life. 

7 Because they become so to us. 

8 Keeping back a portion of the consecrated elements, for the 
purpose of giving them to the sick, or to other absent persons at 
some future time. 

9 Because it is not a part of Christ s ordinance. 


the reason l ? What is the ceremony of carrying 
about the Sacrament 2 ? From what error do this 
and the following practices spring ? 

Evidence from Antiquity.- Did the Primitive 
Christians believe that the Body and Blood of 
Christ were received by the faithful, in the Lord s 
Supper 3 ? What is the testimony of Cyril of 
Jerusalem on this point 4 ? 

When did controversy first arise with regard to 
transubstantiation ? How does it appear indirectly 
that the early Christians did not hold this doc 
trine 5 ? "What is the testimony of Tertullian on 
this point 6 ? Of St. Augustine 7 ? How does Ter- 

1 Because in the early period of the Church, priests were not 
numerous, and it was not an easy thing to procure the Lord s 

2 Amongst the Romanists, the host is carried in procession to 
the sick. It is also lifted up by the priest in the service of the 
mass, in order that it may be worshipped. These errors arise from 
the doctrine of transubstantiation. 

3 They speak of that Sacrament as a vehicle of Christ s spiritual 

4 CYRIL. "With all persuasion let us partake of it as of the 
Body and Blood of Christ; for under the type of bread his Body 
is given to tliee, and under the type of wine his Blood is given to 
thee; that partaking of the Body and Blood of Christ, thou may- 
est be of one Body and Blood with Him." (Cyril. Hier. Catech. 
Myst. 4, 3.) 

5 One of the charges brought against the early Christians by 
their heathen persecutors, was that they were cannibals ; the par 
ties who made it, hearing that Christians met together to partake 
of the Body and Blood of Christ, supposed that it wasof the earthly, 
whereas it was of the heavenly body that they partook. The 
mistake is so explained by Irenseus, and the answer by which the 
Christians met this calumny was, that so far from devouring 
human flesh, they did not count it lawful to eat the blood of mere 
animals. (See Blunfs Sketch of the Church, p. 165.) 

TERTULLIAN. " The bread which our Saviour took and dis 
tributed to his disciples, he made his own Body, saying, This is 
my body, that is, the fgure of my body." (Tertull. ad Marcion. 
}. iv. c. 40.) 

7 ST. AUGUSTINE. " The Lord did not hesitate to say, This is 


tullian comment upon the words in John vi. 53, 
&C. 1 ? Can all the statements of the early Fathers 
be depended upon with reference to the manner 
of Christ s presence in the Lord s Supper 2 ? 


Of the Wicked which eat not the Body of Christ in 
the use of the Lord s Supper. 

The Wicked, and such as be void of a lively faith, 
although they do carnally and visibly press with their 
teeth (as St. Augustine saith) the Sacrament of the 
Body and Blood of Christ ; yet in no wise are they 
partakers of Christ ; but rather, to their condemnation, 
do eat and drink the sign or Sacrament of so great a 

De manducatione Corporis Christi, et impios illud 

non manducare. 

Impii, et fide viva destituti, licet carnaliter et visi- 
biliter (ut Augustinus loquitur) corporis et sanguinis 
Christi Sacramentum dentibus premant, nullo tamen 
modo Christi participes efficiuntur. Sed potius tantae 
rei Sacramentum, seu Symbolum, ad judicium sibi 
manducant et bibunt. 

my Body, when He was giving the sign of his Body." (Aug. cont. 
Adeimantum. Ed. Ben. torn. viii. p. 124.) 

1 TERTULLIAN. " They thought his saying hard and intolerable ; 
as though He was literally about to give his flesh to be eaten by 
them." (Tertullian, De resur. earn. c. 37-) 

2 It must be remembered that their sentiments were written 
before any such gross error as transubstantiation had arisen, or 
was anticipated ; therefore they often express themselves in 
unguarded terms, and do not always convey that preciseness of 
meaning which is now necessary. It is very probable too, that 
some exaggerated expressions, which have fallen from them in 
reference to this subject, have prepared the way for the doctrine 
of transubstantiation. 


Against what opinion is this Article directed l ? 
Upon what error does that opinion depend 2 ? Who 
are meant by the wicked 3 ? What is to be under 
stood by being " partakers of Christ 4 ?" How does 
it appear that the wicked do not partake of Christ 
in that Sacrament 5 ? Repeat 1 Cor. xi. 29. What 
is meant by the word "damnation" in that passage 6 ? 
How may persons be said to receive the Sacrament 
unworthily 7 ? Is then a person who declines to 
receive it at all, free from sin 8 ? 

Evidence from Antiquity. How does Origen 
attest the truth declared in this Article g ? How 
is the same thing expressed by Jerome 10 ? What 
Father is quoted in the Article ? What are his 
words u ? 

1 The opinion that the Sacrament has a mechanical effect, (ex 
opere operate,) with little or no reference to the disposition of the 

2 That of transubstantiation. 

3 Persons quite abandoned, as distinguished from persons of 
better moral character, but without lively faith. 

4 Partakers of the redemption which Christ has obtained. 

3 Because the mean by which Christ is received is faith, which 
they have not. 

6 Condemnation, and consequently punishment. The Greek 
word is /cpijua. 

7 There are many degrees of unworthiness, such as going with 
out any intention of amending, without serious thought before 
hand, with irreverence, &c. 

8 Certainly not ; because he is commanded to receive it, and 
the covenant into which he entered at Baptism must be renewed. 

9 ORIGEN. " Christ is the true food ; whosoever eats Him shall 
live for ever ; of whom no wicked person can eat ; for if it were 
possible that any who continues wicked should eat the Word 
that was made flesh, it had never been written, Whoso eats this 
bread shall live for ever. " (Origen. Comment, in Matt. c. 15.) 

10 JKROME. " They that are not holy in body and spirit, do nei 
ther eat the flesh of Jesus, nor drink his blood ; of which He 
said, He that eats my flesh and drinks my blood, hath eternal 
life." (Jerome in cap. 66. Isaice.) 

11 AUGUSTINE. " He that does not abide in Christ, and in whom 




Of both kinds. 

The cup of the Lord is not to be denied to the Lay- 
people : for both the parts of the Lord s Sacrament, by 
Christ s ordinance and commandment, ought to be 
ministered to all Christian men alike. 

De utraque specie. 

Calix Domini laicis non est denegandus ; utraque 
enim pars Dominici Sacramenti, ex Christi institutione 
et praecepto, omnibus Christianis ex aequo administrari 

What is the assertion of this Article ? What 
reason is given for this assertion ? 

Show that by the ordinance and commandment 
of Christ, the Cup of the Lord ought to be minis 
tered to all Christian people alike. (Matt. xxvi. 27.) 
Does it appear from Scripture that our Saviour s 
command was so understood ? (1 Cor. xi. 26 28, 
&c.) By what argument has it been attempted to 
show that the Cup ought not to be ministered to 
the laity * ? What is the fallacy of this argument 2 ? 
What erroneous doctrine appears to have given 
rise to this practice 3 ? 

Christ does not abide, certainly does not spiritually eat his flesh, 
nor drink his blood, though he mny visibly and carnally press with 
his teeth the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ ; but he 
rather eats and drinks the Sacrament of so great a matter to his 
condemnation." (August. Tract. 26 in Joan.) 

1 It has been asserted that the commandment, " Drink ye all 
of this," was delivered to the Apostles, and is not therefore binding 
on the laity. 

2 If our Lord s words were to be so understood, they would 
limit the Lord s Supper altogether to the priests. 

3 That of transiibstantiation. Believing that the bread and wine 
were actually changed into the body and blood of Christ, they 
believed also that Christ was received whole and entire in either 


When was the error condemned in this Article, 
established 1 ? In what words did the Council of 
Constance justify this departure from primitive 
practice 2 ? Had this error been heard of at an 
earlier period in the Church 3 ? How was it con 
demned by St. Cyprian 4 ? 


Of the one oblation of Christ finished upon the Cross. 

The offering of Christ once made is that perfect 
redemption, propitiation, and satisfaction, for all the 
sins of the whole world, both original and actual ; and 
there is none other satisfaction for sin, but that alone. 
Wherefore the sacrifices of Masses, in the which it was 
commonly said, that the Priest did offer Christ for the 
quick and the dead, to have remission of pain or guilt, 
were blasphemous fables, and dangerous deceits. 

De unica Christi oblatione in cruce perfecta. 

Oblatio Christi semel facta, perfecta est redemptio, 
propitiatio, et satisfactio pro omnibus peccatts totius 
mundi, tarn originalibus, quam actualibus ; neque prse- 

In the year 1414, by the Council of Constance. 

2 " Christ did institute this Sacrament in both kinds, and the 
faithful in the primitive Church did receive in both kinds ; yet a 
practice being reasonably brought in to avoid some dangers and 
scandals, they appoint the custom to continue, of consecrating in 
both kinds, and of giving to the laity only in one kind ; since Christ 
was entire and truly under each kind." (Cone. Const. Sess. 11.) 

In St. Cyprian s time there were some who thought it un 
necessary to use wine in the Sacrament; they therefore used water 
only, and hence were called Aquarii. 

* CYPRIAN. " If it be not lawful to loose any one of the least 
commands of Christ, how much more is it unlawful to break so 
great and so weighty a one, that does so very nearly relate to the 
Sacrament of our Lord s passion, and of our redemption, or by 
any human institution to change it into that which is quite differ 
ent from the Divine institution." (Cypr. Ep. 63.) 


ter illam unicam est ulla alia pro peccatis expiatio ; 
uncle missarum sacrificia, quibus vulgo dicebatur, sacer- 
dotem offerre Christum in remissionem pcenae aut cul- 
pae, pro vivis et defunctis, blasphema figmenta sunt, et 
perniciosae imposturae. 

"What does this Article assert with, regard to the 


offering of Clirist once made ? Is there any other 
satisfaction for sin but this? "What doctrine of 
the Romish Church is opposed to this truth ? How 
are such sacrifices denounced in this Article ? 
What is the Romish doctrine of the sacrifice of 
mass * ? What is the origin of the word mass 2 ? 
What is the Latin word translated pain in this 
Article 3 ? Why is the latter clause of this Article 
put in the past tense 4 ? In what respect are such 
sacrifices blasphemous fables 5 ? In what respect 

1 It is maintained that because the bread and wine are changed 
by consecration into the real Body and Blood of Christ, therefore 
Christ is offered up to God by the priest at each celebration of the 
Eucharist, so that he presents to God a, propitiatory sacrifice, which 
is available both for the living and the dead. Hence the wealthy 
are induced to give money, in order that masses may be said for 
them, and these are called solitary masses. 

2 It is derived from the Latin missa. The ancient service of 
the Church was divided into two parts, at the conclusion of the 
first part of which all but the faithful were dismissed with the 
words, " Ite, missa est ecclesia," whence the service commencing 
at that point obtained the name of missio, missa, or mass. 

3 Posna, punishment. 

* This Article was drawn up in the time of Edward VI., and 
before the decrees of the council of Trent were published ; it 
was therefore probably put by the Reformers in the past tense, 
in the hope that the Romanists might be induced to alter this 
monstrous doctrine. 

5 Because they derogate from the sufficiency of the one sacrifice 
of Christ. 


are they dangerous deceits l ? What is the Latin 
version of the words, " dangerous deceits 2 ?" 

What passages of Scripture are opposed to the 
doctrine of the mass 3 ? Show that Christ was 
oifered once for all (Heb. ix. 26. Heb. x. 10.) 
Show that this offering was a perfect satisfaction 
for sin. (Heb. ix. 25. Heb. x. 26.) By what rea 
soning has it been attempted to reconcile the 
doctrine of the mass with these passages of Scrip 
ture 4 ? What is the fallacy of this reasoning 5 ? 

What is a sacrifice 6 ? Is this word used in dif 
ferent senses in Scripture ? What, for example, is 
said to be a sacrifice in Psalm cxli. 2 7 ? In Psalm 
li. 1 7 8 ? In Hebrews xiii. 1 5 9 ? In Phil. iv. 18 10 ? 
What kind of sacrifice is implied in the word Eu 
charist u ? In what other respects may the Eucha 
rist be called a sacrifice 12 ? How do these views of 

1 Because they encourage wickedness, by holding out an easy 
method of pardon. 

2 Perniciosce imposture. 

3 All those which speak of the full, perfect, and sufficient sacri 
fice of Christ. 

4 It has been asserted that the offering of the priest in the mass 
is a continuation of the same sacrifice. 

5 It assumes that Christ is still suffering. In the sacrifice of 
mass, either Christ suffers, or he does not suffer ; if He suffers, 
He is not sitting at the right hand of God ; if He does not suffer, 
it is no sacrifice. 

6 An offering made to God. [ST. AUGUSTINE says : " A true 
sacrifice is any work done, to keep us joined in holy union with 
God, referred to Him as our sovereign good, in whom \ve may 
enjoy true felicity." (Aug. de CiTit. Dei, lib. x. c. 6.)] 

Prayer. 8 Repentance. 9 Praise. 

Acts of charity. " Thanksgiving. 

[There is an offering made in it of our alms and oblations. 
Not however that the material offering is a sacrifice to God, for it 


acrifice differ from that of the Romanists, with 
regard to the sacrifice of the mass l ? 

Evidence from Antiquity. By what argument 
does it appear indirectly that the Primitive Chris 
tians did not consider the Eucharist as a propiti 
atory sacrifice 2 ? What is the testimony of Justin 
Martyr on this^point 3 ? [Of Tertullian* 4 ?] Of St. 
Augustine 5 ? I:i what sense did they consider 
the Eucharist as a sacrifice 6 ? 

goes entirely to the use of man; but that our act of charity, when 
religiously intended and offered through Christ, is a spiritual 
service, acceptable to God. There is also in the Holy Communion 
the sacrifice of prayer, of praise and thank*jirii,<j, of penitence, of 
faith, of huin dity ; and that which is called in this service the 
reasonatAe, Iiofy, and l r-ly sacrifice of ourselves, our souls and bodies, 
to God.] 

1 The Romanists teach that it is an expiatory sacrifice. 

2 They were reproached by the heathens, because their religion 
had no altars or sacrifices; and they never defended themselves by 
saving that they had a sacrifice in the propitiatory sense in the 

3 JUSTIN MARTYR. "Christians have no other sacrifice but 
prayers and prai (Justin Martyr, Apol. 2.) 

4 [TERTULLIA.N. " That we ought not to offer unto God earthly, 
but spiritual sacrifices, we may learn from what is written : 77 
sacrifice of God is an humfsle and contrite spirit ; and elsewhere, 
<tftr unto GfMl the sacrifice of tlianksyiriny, and pay thy roves unto 
the Most Hi jh. So then, the spiritual sacrifices of praise are 
here pointed to, and a troubled spirit is declared to be the accept 
able sacrifice unto God." (TtrlaU. adr. Jud. e. v.)J 

TINE. "Christians do still celebrate the memory of the 
sacrifice then made, in the holy offering and participation of the 
Body and Blood of" Christ." (Aug. con . / // , 1. 20, c. 18.) 

c [It appears evident Jiat when they call the Eucharist a 
sacrifice, they have regard only to the spiritual service offered in 
it, and not to any /, oblation. It is called a pure and un- 

Woody sacrifice (icaOapuv icai dvai/iaicrov Ovaiav) in the Aposto 
lical Constitutions.] 



Of the Marriage of Priests. 

Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, are not commanded by 
God s Law, either to vow the estate of single life, or 
to abstain from marriage : therefore it is lawful for them, 
as for all other Christian men, to marry at their own 
discretion, as they shall judge the same to serve better 
to godliness. 


De Conjugio Sacerdotum. 

Episcopis, presbyteris, et diaconis nullo mandato 
divino pra?ceptum est, ut aut coelibatum voveant aut 
a matrimonio abstineant. Licet igitur etiam illis, ut 
caeteris omnibus Christianis, ubi hoc ad pietatem magis 
facere judicaverint, pro suo arbitratu matrimonium con- 

What is the historv of this Article 1 1 What are 


the two assertions in the first clause I What is the 
difference between these assertions 2 1 To which 
of them does the last clause of the Article refer : 
What orders of the Christian ministry are mentioned 
in this Article * I Is there any passage in Scrip 
ture which forbids the marriage of the Priesthood ! 
To whom was the Priesthood confined under the 
Jewish dispensation 4 ! What followed from hence 5 ? 

1 The first paragraph only was published in the reign of Edward 
VI.; the concluding paragraph was added in the reign of Elizabeth. 

3 The jirtt means that the clergy are not bound at the time uf 
their ordination to enter into a solemn engagement not to marry; 
the second, that they are not bound to abstain from marriage with 
out such vow. 

3 Bishops, Priests, and Deacons; in which there is a tacit re 
jection of the minor orders of the Romish Church. 

* To the descendants of one particular family. 

5 The high priest was obliged to marry. 


Was Simon Peter a married man? How does 
this appear? (Matt. viii. 14.) Who was Philip? 
Was he a married man ? (Acts xxi. 8, 9.) Repeat 
1 Cor. ix. 5. What is meant by a sister in that 
passage l ? What direction does St. Paul give in 
this respect, with reference to the choice of a 
bishop ? (1 Tim. iii. 2.) Is the same direction 
given with regard to elders or priests 1 (Titus i. 6.) 
With regard to deacons? (1 Tim. iii. 12.) Who 
was Aquila? Was he married? (Acts xviii. 2.) 
What is mentioned by St. Paul as one of the cha 
racters of the apostasy of the latter times ? (1 Tim. 
iv. 3.) What is the scope of the advice given by 
St. Paul in 1 Cor. vii. 2 ? 

Has any Church the power of laying down regu 
lations on such a subject as this 3 ? Is it expedient 
to exercise this power 4 ? 

Evidence from Antiquity. Did the practice of 
the Primitive Church correspond with the state 
ment of this Article 5 ? What cause appears to 
have given progress to the principle of celibacy 6 ? 
What did the Council of Nice (A.D. 325) determine 

1 A Christian woman, ns opposed to a heathen. 

2 Its tendency is to show that under the existing circumstances 
of the Church at that time, marriage was not desirable; but there 
is no prohibition. 

3 There can be no question that the Church, as a Society, has 
a right to demand such things from her ministers. 

4 Certainly not; if regard be had to the spread of religion and 

3 The early Fathers advocated the lawfulness of marriage against 
the Encratites, the Montanists, and the Novatians. 

6 The spread of Monackism, and the popular veneration for 
excessive austerities. 


on this question l ? When was the principle fairly 
established ? 


Of excommunicate Persons, how they are to be avoided. 

That person which by open denunciation of the 
Church is rightly cut off from the unity of the Church, 
and excommunicated, ought to be taken of the whole 
multitude of the faithful, as an Heathen and Publican, 
until he be openly reconciled by penance s and received 
into the Church by a Judge that hath authority there 

De excommunicatis vitandis. 

Qui per publicam Ecclesiae denunciationem rite ab 
unitate Ecclesiae prascisus est et excommunicatus, is ab 
universa fidelium multitudine (donee per pcenitentiam 
publice reconciliattis fuerit arbitrio judicis competentis) 
habendus est tanquam ethnicus et publicanus. 

What is the subject of this Article 2 ? What is 
meant by excommunication 3 ? What does this 
Article assume 4 ? What is meant by the expres 
sion "rightly" cut off 5 ? Who are meant by the 

1 . It was proposed at that Council to forbid the marriage of the 
clergy altogether; this, however, was opposed by Paphnutius, and 
it was finally enacted that all who had been married before they 
took orders should retain their wives, but that they should not 
marry a second time. Celibacy, however, still gained ground, 
being encouraged by the Popes, and was at last established by 
Gregory VII., A.D. 1085. 

The treatment of excommunicate persons. 
Separation from outward communion with the Visible Church. 
That the Church has the right to excommunicate her members. 
5 According to due order of the Church. 


whole multitude of the faithful 1 ? How are they 
to regard the excommunicate person ? What is to 
be understood by this 2 ? Is the excommunication 
to be final ? What is meant by penance 3 ? 

By what general reasoning would you conclude 
that the Church has the right, of excommunica 
ting 4 ? Has* this principle been generally acknow 
ledged in the world 5 ? Does it appear that the 
Jewish Church had this power 6 ? Repeat Matt, 
xviii. 15 17. Was this a private or a public 
wrong ? What then would you infer from hence 
with regard to public wrongs ? Repeat Matt, xviii. 
18. What does this passage imply 7 ? Does it 
appear from Scripture that the right of excommu 
nicating was admitted after the Church was firmly 
established? Repeat 1 Cor. v. 1 5. How was 
the incestuous person to be punished 8 ? By whose 

1 The whole Christian society ; all the members of Christ s 
Holy Catholic Church. 

2 He is not to be regarded as a brother Christian. The brother 
hood of nature would still remain ; the brotherhood of grace is 

3 Repentance and contrition, together with the punishment 
assigned by the Church. 

4 The nature of the Church as a society. It is necessary to the 
well-being of a society that it should have the power of expelling 
its members. 

5 Exclusion from sacred rites was practised even amongst the 
heathen, and was considered as a severe punishment. 

6 The Jewish Church appears always to have had this power 
both in the time of Moses, and in that of our Saviour. (See 
Exodus xii. 19. Lev. vii. 20. John ix. 34, &c.) 

7 The words relate primarily to the directions given in the 
preceding verses; and they imply that whatever the Apostles might 
determine and appoint respecting such an offender, whether as to 
his expulsion or re-admission, would be ratified in heaven. 

8 He was to be delivered over to Satan, or excommunicated. 


authority was this punishment inflicted? What 
was its object ? (1 Cor. v. 5, last clause.) Is there 
anv account of the restoration of this offender ? 


(2 Cor. ii. 6, 7.) Can we infer any thing from 
this example with regard to the treatment of the 
offender 1 ? What other examples are there of ex 
communication in the New Testament 2 ? 

Does it appear that excommunication was gene 
rally practised in the times succeeding the Apostles 3 ? 
What was its nature 4 ? What was the rule of the 
early Church with regard to the treatment of such 
persons 5 ? How was the power of excommunica 
tion gradually extended 6 ? What was the result 7 ? 
Was the right of excommunicating according to the 
practice of the primitive Church, generally ad 
mitted at the Reformation 8 ? What other declara 
tions besides that of this Article show that it is 

1 He was not to be considered past redemption; but during the 
time of his excommunication all familiar intercourse with him 
was to be suspended. 

2 1 Cor. xvi. 22. 1 Tim. i. 1H, 20. 2 John 10, 11, &c. 

3 The early ecclesiastical writers speak constantly of the rules 
and customs of the Church with regard to excommunication and 

4 There were two kinds of excommunication, the minor and the 
major. By the former the offender was expelled from the Eucha 
rist ; by the latter he was expelled from all communion. 

5 All familiar intercourse was suspended for the time, but the 
person was not deprived of his natural or civil rights. 

6 The civil power was brought in to enforce it. and it was used 
by the Popes as an engine to advance their temporal purposes. 

7 It became weakened by its very extension, and indirectly 
helped forward the Reformation, by confirming Henry VIII. and 
Elizabeth in their alienation from the Papal See. 

8 Most of the reformed Churches asserted this power. 



an acknowledged principle of the Church of Eng 
land l ? 

What was the form of excommunication, as set 
forth in the Convocation of 1571 2 ? What ap 
pears to have been one main cause of the neglect 
into which excommunication has fallen 3 ? What 
would be the Yemedy 4 ? 


Of the Traditions of the Church. 

It is not necessary that Traditions and Ceremonies 
be in all places one, and utterly like ; for at all times 
they have been divers, and may be changed according 
to the diversities of countries, times, and men s man 
ners, so that nothing be ordained against God s Word. 
Whosoever through his private judgment, willingly 
and purposely, doth openly break the traditions and 

1 The 85th Canon directs that the Churchwardens are to see 
that excommunicated persons be kept out of the Church. The 65th 
directs that such persons shall be declared excommunicate every 
six months ensuing, (until their restoration,) in the parish church 
as well as in the cathedral, where they remain. See also the 
rubric at the beginning of the office for the burial of the dead, &c. 

2 After stating the nature of the offence, it proceeds "I would 
that you should know that our Bishop, in the name and by the 
authority of Almighty God, has cut him wholly off from commu 
nion with the Church of God, and separated him as a dead mem 
ber from Christ s body. This is his present state ; this is his 
soul s great danger. St. Paul, admonished by the Holy Ghost, 
orders us to avoid such men s company and intercourse, lest we 
be partakers of their sin. Yet, as Christian charity warns us, since 
he will not pray for himself, nor understand his danger, let us all 
pray God in his name, that he may at length discover the misery 
and deformity of his life, may do penitence, and be converted to 
God ; our God is merciful, and can recall the fallen even from 
death." (Wilkins > s Concilia, vol. iv. p. 268.) 

3 The circumstance of its having been employed as a temporal 

4 The entire removal of its civil penalties. 


ceremonies of the Church, which be not repugnant to the 
Word of God, and be ordained and approved by common 
authority, ought to be rebuked openly, (that others 
may fear to do the like,) as he that oflfendeth against the 
common order of the Church, and hurteth the autho 
rity of the Magistrate, and woundeth the consciences 
of the weak brethren. 

Every particular or national Church hath authority 
to ordain, change, and abolish, ceremonies or rites of 
the Church ordained only by man s authority, so that 
all things be done to edifying. 

De traditionibus Ecclesiasticis. 

Traditiones atque caeremonias easdem, non omnino 
necessarium est esse ubique, aut prorsus consimiles. 
Nam ut varise semper fuerunt, et mutari possunt pro 
regionum, temporum, et morum diversitate, modo nihil 
contra verbum Dei instituatur. 

Traditiones, et cseremonias ecclesiasticas, quae cum 
verbo Dei non pugnant, et sunt auctoritate publica in- 
stitutse atque probatae, quisquis privato consilio volens, 
et data opera, publice violaverit, is ut qui peccat in 
publicum ordinem Ecclesiae, quique laedit auctoritatem 
Magistrates, et qui infirmorum fratrum conscientias 
vulnerat, publice, ut caeteri timeant, arguendus est. 

Quaelibet Ecclesia particularis, sive nationalis, auc 
toritatem habet instituendi, mutandi, aut abrogandi cae 
remonias, aut ritus ecclesiasticos, humana tantum auc 
toritate institutes, modo omnia ad aedificationem fiant. 

What is the subject of this Article ? What is 
the original meaning of the word Tradition 1 ? What 
are the traditions here spoken of 2 ? What is the 
essential difference between traditions of doctrines, 
and traditions of ceremonies 3 ? What is asserted 

1 See Article VI. page 24, note 7. 

2 Traditions of Ceremonies, Order, and Church Government. 

3 Traditions of doctrine must be expressly contained in the Word 
of God, or else manifestly collected out of it; traditions of cere- 

H 2 


with regard to sucli traditions as are spoken of in 
this Article ? What is the limitation with regard 
to the ordaining of such traditions ? 

What are the three assertions of this Article * ? 

How does the necessity of traditions and 


ceremonies appear 2 ? For example : What is the 
substance or essential part of the Sacrament of 
Baptism ? What of the Eucharist ? Would the 
mere use of these essentials he sufficient to 
the decent administration of these Sacraments? 
Have the essentials always heen the same ? Have 
the attendant ceremonies varied 3 ? To illustrate 
this point. Speech is necessary amongst all men. 
Does it therefore follow that all men must speak 
the same language ? Traditions and ceremonies are 
necessary. Does it therefore follow that the same 
certain form must prevail every where ? Have 
such traditions and ceremonies always been divers ? 
What circumstances have caused traditions to 
vary ? For example. How have the diversities 
of countries affected the mode of baptizing 4 ? How 

monies not so ; the former must not be received unless there is 
something in Scripture for them ; the latter are free, if nothing 
can be alleged against them from Scripture. 

1 1. That traditions and ceremonies need not be in all places 
the same. 2. That those who wilfully break sucli traditions as are 
lawfully ordained should be rebuked openly. 3. That every parti 
cular Church has authority to ordain, change, or abolish such 

2 Many circumstances are required for the performance of those 
things which God has required in his Word, which are not detailed 
in Scripture, and without which such things could not be per 
formed, such as the time and the place, &c. 

3 They have always varied, as is evident from the ancient 

* In a cold climate sprinkling would be resorted to rather than 


have the diversities of times affected the mode of 
celebrating public worship 1 ? How have the diver 
sities of men s manners affected the mode of cele 
brating the JEucharist 2 ? 

What is the second assertion of this Article ? 
Supposing every individual was left to the free 
exercise of his private judgment, in opposition to 
the decisions of the Church, what must follow 3 ? 
On what three grounds ought those who break the 
traditions of the Church to be rebuked 4 ? Why is 
a person who breaks the laws of a civil society to 
be punished 5 ? What directions has an inspired 
Apostle given with regard to the external regimen 
of the Church? (1 Cor. xiv. 40.) Whose law then 
does a person break, who offends against the com 
mon order of the Church? How does such a 
person hurt the authority of the magistrate 6 ? 
How does he wound the consciences of weak bre 
thren 7 ? Is such an action a sin against God ? 
(1 Cor. viii. 12.) 

What is the third assertion of this Article ? What 

1 It is no longer necessary to assemble the people to serve God 
in close and secret meetings. 

2 The kiss of peace is no longer given, being unsuited to the 
manners of the time and country. 

3 All uniformity of worship would at once be destroyed, and 
the very existence of the Church, as a visible society, would be 

4 See the Article. 

5 Because he offends against the common order of that society, 
and weakens the ties by which it is held together. 

By disobedience ; for the magistrate, as is his duty, protects 
the Church in the maintenance of its order and discipline. 

7 He shocks them ; or he lessens their regard for religious mat 
ters altogether, or he encourages them to a similar disobedience. 

H 3 


is to be understood by this assertion 1 ? How does it 
appear that each particular Church has this power 2 ? 
Evidence from, Antiquity. Does it appear that 
in the early ages of Christianity the traditions and 
ceremonies in different Churches were divers 3 ? 
Show this from the writings of Irenseus 4 . Of St. 
Augustine 5 . 

i ~ 

1 That traditions and ceremonies need not be changed by the 
whole body of Christian men, but that each particular Society has 
this power. 

2 The Church Catholic is made up of many Churches, indepen 
dent of each other, though bound together by the same faith. 
Therefore it is evident that with respect to matters of discipline, 
which Christ has neither commanded nor forbidden, each parti 
cular Church may use its own liberty. 

3 In the early ages each particular Church ordajned and varied 
at its pleasure its own rites and ceremonies. The rituals of differ 
ent Churches were different in the times immediately succeeding 
the Apostles. 

4 IREN^EUS gives an account of the dispute between Polycarp 
and Anicetus concerning the observation of Easter, in the following 
words : " St. Polycarp being at Rome with Anicetus, and they 
having had some little controversy with each other about other 
things, presently composed the difference, and showed themselves 
also to be no lovers of strife on that particular head ; for neither 
could Anicetus persuade Polycarp to desist from observing Easter 
according as he had always observed it with St. John, the disciple 
of our Lord, and with the rest of the Apostles with whom he had 
been conversant; nor could Polycarp persuade Anicetus to observe 
it otherwise than as he said it was his duty to do, according 
to the custom of the elders who were before him. This being the 
case between them, they, notwithstanding, communicated with 
each other." (Irenceus, Fragm. Epist. ad Victor, p. 340. Ben. Ed.) 

5 AUGUSTINE. But other things which are changed, according 
to the several places and regions of the earth ; as for example, that 
some fast on the Sabbath-day, others do not, some partake daily 
of the Body and Blood of the Lord, others on certain days, &c., 
and the like kind of things, has a free observation; neither is there 
any better discipline in these things to a grave and prudent Chris 
tian, than to do as he sees the Church to do, unto which he shall 
chance to come ; for whatsoever is enjoined, neither contrary to 
faith nor good manners, is indifferently to be accounted of, and 
to be observed and kept for their Society amongst whom he lives. 
{Aug. Ep. ad Jan. 1, cap. 2.) 


Of the Homilies. 

The second Book of Homilies, the several titles 
whereof we have joined under this Article, doth con 
tain a godly and wholesome Doctrine, and necessary 
for these times, as doth the former book of Homilies, 
which were set forth in the time of Edward the Sixth ; 
and therefore we judge them to be read in Churches by 
the Ministers, diligently and distinctly, that they may 
be understanded of the people. 

Of the Names of the Homilies. 

1. Of the right Use of the Church. 

2. Against peril of Idolatry. 

3. Of repairing and keeping clean of Churches. 

4. Of Good Works : first of Fasting. 

5. Against Gluttony and Drunkenness. 

6. Against Excess of Apparel. 

7. Of Prayer. 

8. Of the Place and Time of Prayer. 

9. That Common Prayers and Sacraments ought to 
be ministered in a known tongue. 

10. Of the reverend estimation of Gods Word. 

11. Of Alms-doing. 

12. Of the Nativity of Christ. 

13. Of the Passion of Christ. 

14. Of the Resurrection of Christ. 

15. Of the worthy receiving of the Sacrament of the 
Body and Blood of Christ. 

16. Of the Gifts of the Holy Ghost. 

17. For the Rogation- days. 

18. Of the State of Matrimony. 

19. Of Repentance. 

20. Against Idleness. 

21. Against Rebellion. 

De Homiliis. 

Tomus secundus Homiliarum, quarum singulos titulos 
huic Articulo subjunximus, continet piam et salutarem 
doctrinam, et his temporibus necessariam, non minus 

H 4 


quam prior tomus Homiliarum, quae editae sunt tern- 
pore Edvardi Sexti. Itaque eas in Ecclesiis per ministros 
diligenter et clare, ut a populo intelligi possint, reci- 
tandas esse judicavimus. 

What is the meaning of the word Homily 1 ? 
When was the first book of Homilies published 2 ? 
What are the Homilies included in this Book 3 ? 
When was the second Book published 4 ? By whom 
are these Homilies supposed to have been pre 
pared 5 ? What is affirmed in this Article with 
reference to the doctrine contained in the Homi 
lies ? What is to be understood by doctrine in 
this passage 6 ? How far may persons who sub 
scribe to the Articles be expected to give their 

1 It is derived from the Greek word 6/ziXia, " familiar inter 
course," and means, therefore, " a plain familiar discourse or 

2 In 1547. 

3 The Article only enumerates the Homilies in the second 
Book ; the following are those in the first : 

(1). A fruitful Exhortation to the Reading of Holy Scrip 

(2.) Of the Misery of all Mankind. 

(3.) Of the Salvation of all Mankind. 

(4.) Of the true and lively Faith. 

(5.) Of Good Works. 

(6.) Of Christian Love and Charity. 

(7-) Against Swearing and Perjury. 

(8.) Of the Declining from God. 

(9.) An Exhortation against the fear of Death. 

(10.) An Exhortation to Obedience. 

(11.) Against Whoredom and Adultery. 

(12.) Against Strife and Contention. 

4 In 1560. 

5 Some of those in the first book, by Cranmer, and those in the 
second, by Jewell. 

6 Teaching, different from doctrine in the theological sense. 


assent to the Homilies ! ? What is the authority 
referred to in the words, " we judge them 2 ?" 
Where are they appointed to be read ? What ap 
pears to have given cause for the preparation of 
these Homilies 3 ? Some persons have held that 
nothing ought to be publicly read in Churches, ex 
cept the Holy Scriptures ; by what reasoning has 
it been attempted to defend this opinion * ? How 
does the weakness of this argument appear 5 ? 

Evidence from Antiquity. Does it appear that 
in the Primitive Church any writings were read 
besides Canonical Scripture 6 ? What is the testi 
mony of Jerome 7 ? Of Eusebius 8 ? 

1 They may assent to the general nature and tendency of the 
teaching contained in them, without being committed to an appro 
val of every sentence. 


2 The Convocation, by whose authority the Articles were passed. 

3 The violence of some preachers, and the ignorance of others 
were one cause, and the prevailing errors and abuses were another. 

a On the ground that under the Law nothing was permitted 
to be brought into the temple but what had been sanctified. 

5 If this argument were admitted, it would follow that every 
thing in the Church is unholy which is not precisely instituted by 
Christ ; moreover, the objection would apply still more strongly to 
exposition and preaching ; and yet we know that exposition of Scrip 
ture was usual in the synagogues. 

6 It has been shown that the Apocryphal Books were read, and 
it also appears that the Shepherd of Hennas, and the Epistles of 
Clement and Polycarp were so read. 

7 JEROME. " Hernias, of whom the Apostle Paul, writing to 
the Romans, makes mention, saying, Salute Asyncritus, Phlegon, 
Hernias, &c. ; they say, he (Hernias) was the author of the book 
which is called the Pastor, and in some Churches of Greece it is 
read publicly." (Jerome, vol. ii. p. 831.) Jerome also says that 
" Polycarp wrote to the Philippians a very useful epistle, which to 
this day is read in the Asian assemblies." (p. 843.) 

8 EUSEBIUS says of the Epistle of Clemens Romanus " It is a 
great and admirable one, which he wrote from the Church of 
the Romans to that of the Corinthians, there being a sedition 
then at Corinth ; and this Epistle we know to be read publicly in 
most of the Churches, both long ago, and also in our time." 
(Euseb. Hist. lib. iii. c. 16.) 

H 5 



Of Consecration of Bishops and Ministers. 

The Book of Consecration of Archbishops and Bishops, 
and Ordering of Priests and Deacons, lately set forth 
in the time of Edward the Sixth, and confirmed at the 
same time by authority of Parliament, doth contain all 
things necessary to such Consecration and Ordering : 
neither hath it any thing, that of itself is superstitious 
and ungodly. And therefore whosoever are consecrated 
or ordered according to the Rites of that Book, since 
the second year of the forenamed King Edward unto 
this time, or hereafter shall be consecrated or ordered 
according to the same Rites ; we decree all such to be 
rightly, orderly, and lawfully consecrated and ordered. 

De Episcoporum et Ministrorum Consecratione. 

Libellus de consecratione Archiepiscoporum, et Epi 
scoporum, et de ordinatione Presbyterorum et Diaco- 
norum, editus nuper temporibus Edvardi VI., et 
auctoritate Parliamenti illis ipsis temporibus confirma- 
tus, omnia ad ejusmodi consecrationem et ordinationem 
necessaria continet, et nihil habet, quod ex se sit, aut 
superstitiosum aut impium ; itaque quicunque juxta 
ritus illius libri consecrati aut ordinati sunt, ab anno 
secundo prsedicti regis Edvardi, usque ad hoc tempus, 
aut in posterum juxta eosdem ritus consecrabuntur, aut 
ordinabuntur, rite atque ordine, atque legitime statui- 
mus esse et fore consecrates et ordinatos. 

What does this Article state with regard to the 
Book of Consecration of Ministers, set forth in the 
time of Edward VI. 1 ? What is the Latin version 
of the word " ungodly ?" What were the circum- 

1 First, that it contains all things necessary to such consecration ; 
and secondly, that it contains nothing superstitious and ungodly. 


stances which occasioned the 2nd paragraph of this 
Article * ? What is the meaning of the expression 
"set forth/ as distinguished from " confirmed?" 

y * 

What is the first assertion of this Article with 
regard to the Book of Consecration ? How does 


the truth of this assertion appear 2 ? What is the 
second assertion of this Article ? What objection 
has been urged against the form of Consecration 
used in the Church of England 3 ? In what sense 
are the words, " Receive the Holy Ghost/ used 4 ? 
When our Lord appointed his Apostles to go into 
the world and teach all nations, what did He add ? 
(John xx. 22.) Does it appear that the gifts of 
the Holj Ghost which the Apostles then received 
were miraculous 5 ? When did they receive the 

1 There was a new form of ordinations agreed upon by the 
Bishops in the third year of King Edward ; and when the Book of 
Common Prayer was confirmed by Act of Parliament two years 
after, this form of ordination was included. In Queen Mary s reign 
this Act was repealed ; and the Book of Common Prayer and the 
Book of Ordination were by name condemned. When Queen Eli 
zabeth came to the throne, King Edward s Prayer Book was again 
authorized, but the Book of Ordination was not then expressly 
named. It was then contended by Bishop Bonner, that since this 
book had been byname condemned in Queen Mary s Act, but had 
not been by name received in Queen Elizabeth s, it was therefore 
still condemned in law, and hence that all ordinations according 
to that form were illegal and invalid. It was to meet that objec 
tion that this paragraph was inserted in the Article. 

2 We have no particular account of the forms by which Bishops, 
Priests, and Deacons were admitted to their several Orders in the 
New Testament, except that it was done by Imposition of Hands 
and Prayer, both which our forms contain. 

3 The words of the Bishop to the person about to be ordered, 
" Receive the Holy Ghost." 

4 Receive the gift of the Holy Ghost i. e. such power as the 
Spirit of Christ has endowed his Church with. 

3 No ; because they wtre the subject of a promise to be fulfilled 
afterwards ; namely, on the day of Pentecost. 

H 6 


miraculous gifts ? (Luke xxiv. 49.) What then 
appears to have been the nature of the gift which 
they received when the Lord breathed upon them * ? 
Is the same authority still given to Christ s Minis 
ters 2 ? Should then the words which convey that 
authority be objected to ? 

What question is asked of the candidate before 
his ordination as to his inward calling* ? How does 
it appear that the secret and sensible testimony of 
God s Spirit in the soul is not necessarily required 
to this inward calling 4 ? By what ordinary means 
may a candidate satisfy himself upon this point 5 ? 

Evidence from Antiquity. Consecration of 
Bishops. What was the decree of the Council of 
Nice with regard to the consecration of Bishops 6 ? 
When was the fourth Council of Carthage con- 

1 Authority relating to the administration of their office, as is 
evident from the words which follow in John xx. 23. 

2 Yes ; because of his promise that He will be with them 
always, even to the end of the world. 

3 See Article XXIII. 

4 Because, were this necessary, an unsanctified man could not be 
rightly called, which would be a false conclusion, as we know by 
the case of Judas. (See Article XXVI.) 

5 If in a sober moment he hajs reason to trust that he has com 
petent knowledge and abilities, and a real purpose in his heart 
with God s grace, " to serve God for the promoting of his glory, 
and the edifying of his people ;" he may by this means satisfy 
himself that he is properly called to the ministry. 

6 " It is most proper that a Bishop should be constituted by all 
the Bishops of the Province ; but if this be difficult on account of 
some urgent necessity, or the length of the way, that at all events 
three should meet together at the same place ; those who are 
absent also giving their suffrages, and their consent in writing, 
and then the ordination be performed. The confirming, however, 
of what is done in each Province belongs to the Metropolitan of it." 
(Canon iv.) 


vened 1 ? What was the decree of that Council on 
this subject 2 ? Show the agreement of these regu 
lations with the Ordinal of the Church of England. 

Ordering of Priests. What is the date of the 
Apostolical Canons 3 ? What directions do they 
contain with reference to the Ordering of Priests 4 ? 
What is the decree of the 4th Council of Carthage 
on this subject 5 ? Do these ancient practices 
accord with the regulations of the Church of Eng 
land ? 

Ordering of Deacons. What reason is given in 
the Canons of the 4th Council of Carthage why 
the Bishop only should lay his hands on the head 
of the Deacon 6 ? 

1 A. D. 399. 

2 " When a Bishop is ordained, let two Bishops hold the Book 
of the Gospels over his head, and one pouring forth the blessing 
upon him, let the other Bishops that are present touch his head 
with their hands, or put their hands on his head." (Condi. Car- 
thag. 4. can. 2.) 

3 It is probable that they were collected in their present form 
about the middle of the third century, though many of the Canons 
themselves were enacted at a much earlier period. 

4 " Let a Presbyter, Deacon, and the rest of the Clergy be 
ordained by one Bishop." (Canon //.) 

5 " When a Priest is ordained, the Bishop blessing him, and 
holding his hand upon his head, let all the Priests also, which are 
present, hold their hands by the hand of the Bishop upon his 
head." (Condi. Carthag. 4. can. 3.) 

6 " When a Deacon is ordained, let the Bishop only that blesseth 
him put his hand upon his head, because he is not ordained to 
the Priesthood, but only to the ministry." (Condi. Carthag. 4. 
can. 4.) 



Of the Civil Magistrates. 

The Queen s Majesty hath the chief power in this 
Realm of England, and other her Dominions, unto 
whom the chief Government of all Estates of this 
Realm, whether they be Ecclesiastical or Civil, in all 
causes doth appertain, and is not, nor ought to be, 
subject to any foreign Jurisdiction. 

Where we attribute to the Queen s Majesty the chief 
government, by which Titles we understand the minds 
of some slanderous folks to be offended ; we give not 
to our Princes the ministering either of God s Word, 
or of the Sacraments, the which thing the Injunctions 
also lately set forth by Elizabeth our Queen do most 
plainly testify ; but that only prerogative, which we 
see to have been given always to all godly Princes in 
holy Scriptures by God himself; that is, that they 
should rule all estates and degrees committed to their 
charge by God, whether they be Ecclesiastical or Tem 
poral, and restrain with the civil sword the stubborn 
and evil-doers. 

The Bishop of Rome hath no jurisdiction in this 

Realm of England. 

The laws of the Realm may punish Christian men 
with death for heinous and grievous offences. 

It is lawful for Christian men, at the commandment of 
the Magistrate, to wear weapons, and serve in the wars. 

De civiltbus Magistratibus. 

Regia Majestas in hoc Angliae regno, ac caeteris ejus 
dominiis, summam habet potestatem, ad quam omnium 
statuum hujus regni, sive illi Ecclesiastic! sint, sive Civi- 
les, in omnibus causis, suprema gubernatio pertinet, 
et nulli externae jurisdictioni est subjecta, nee esse debet. 

Cum Regise Majestati summam gubernationem tri- 
buimus, quibus titulis intelligimus animos quorundam 
calumniatorum offendi, non damus Regibus nostris, aut 
verbi Dei aut Sacramentorum administrationem, quod 
etiam Injunctions ab Elizabetha Regina nostra, nuper 
editse, apertissime testantur; sed earn tantum prse- 


rogativam, quam in Sacris Scripturis a Deo ipso, omni 
bus piis Principibus, videmus semper fuisse attributam ; 
hoc est, ut omnes status atque ordines fidei suae a Deo 
commissos, sive illi Ecclesiastici sint, sive Civiles, in 
officio contineant, et contumaces ac delinquentes gladio 
civili coerceant. 

Romanus pontifex nullam babet jurisdictionem in boc 
regno Angliae. 

Leges regni possunt Christianos, propter capitalia 
et gravia crimina, morte punire. 

Christianis licet, ex mandate Magi stratus, arma por- 
tare, et justa bella administrare. 

How does this Article differ from that published 
in 1552 l ? What appears to have been the reason 
for the alterations made in 1562 2 ? What differ 
ence is there between the present circumstances of 
this country, and those of the time when these Ar 
ticles were originally passed 3 ? Who are meant by 
the "slanderous folks" spoken of in the second para 
graph 4 ? What are the Injunctions here referred to 5 ? 

1 The Article published in 1552 was much shorter. Instead of 
the first paragraph were the words, " The King of England is 
Supreme Head in earth, next under Christ, of the Church of Eng 
land and Ireland." Then followed the pai agraph against the 
Pope s jurisdiction, as it now stands, with the addition of the 
words, "The Civil Magistrate is ordained and allowed of God; 
wherefore we must obey him, not only for fear of punishment, but 
also for conscience sake." 

2 A prejudice had arisen in the minds of many of the people 
against the term Head, as applied to the kingly power, and this 
prejudice was encouraged both by the Puritans and the Papists. 
It was therefore thought expedient to define more particularly the 
nature and limits of the civil authority. 

3 At that time there was a power in this country not subject to 
the supreme government of the realm. 

4 The Puritans, who denied the right of the Civil Magistrate to 
interfere in any ecclesiastical matters. 

5 Those published in 1559, soon after Queen Elizabeth came 
to the throne. They state that the Queen had no intention to 
challenge any other authority, than to have under God the sove 
reignty and rule over all persons and causes ecclesiastical, so as 


There are three propositions in this Article 

(1.) That the Queen s Majesty has the chief 
power and government in this country. 

(2.) That the Bishop of Rome has no jurisdic 
tion in this country. 

(3.) The nature and measures of the Civil power 
and government are stated. 

The supremacy of the Civil Potuer. Is the 
supremacy of the civil power recognized in the 
Old Testament * ? What precept of our Saviour 
shows that the same supremacy is acknowledged 
in the New Testament ? (Luke xx. 25.) What 
directions does St. Paul give in this matter? 
(Romans xiii. 1.) St. Peter? (1 Peter ii. 1314) 
Was the Civil power Christian or heathen at that 
time ? What do you infer 2 ? 

What is the second proposition of this Article ? 
On what ground has the Church of Rome attempted 
to assert a jurisdiction over this realm 3 ? Is the 
Church of Rome really the mother of all the 
Churches * ? It has been said that England was 
converted to the faith by the Church of Rome. Is 

no other foreign power should, or ought to have, any superiority 
over them. 

1 Yes, throughout ; although we might have supposed it other 
wise, from the circumstance of the Jewish polity having been a 
theocracy. We find in Exodus xxxii. 22, that Aaron is in subjec 
tion to Moses; and after the kingly power was established, David, 
Asa, Jehoshaphat, Josias, and others, are represented as making 
laws for matters of religion, the affairs of the temple, and the ser 
vice of God, and issuing orders and directions to the Ministers of 
the Church for the better performance of their duties. 

! See page 84, note 2. 

3 On the ground that she is the mother of all the Churches, and 
that the Bishop of Rome is the Universal Bishop. 

4 Certainly not; if any Church might lay claim to such a title, 
it would rather be Jerusalem. 


this proposition strictly true 1 ? When did the 
Bishop of Rome first acquire a jurisdiction in this 
country 2 ? What causes contributed to advance 


the papal supremacy from this time 3 ? On what 
grounds was Henry VIII. justified in withdrawing 
himself from that jurisdiction 4 ? 

What are the nature and measures of the royal 
supremacy, as defined in this Article 5 ? Suppose 
a State where the Civil power is heathen ; what is 
the relation of Church and State in such a com- 

1 There can be no question that this country was under great 
obligations to the Church of Rome for the mission of Augustine, 
at the end of the sixth century; but it is equally certain that 
Christianity had been introduced amongst the Britons at a much 
earlier period; perhaps by St. Paul himself; for Clement of Rome 
says that he preached righteousness to the whole world, coming 
even to the utmost bounds of the west (STTJ TO rkp^ia rijg $vcr0); 
and Tertullian speaks of " Britannorum inaccessa Romanis loca, 
Christo vero subdita;" but, at all events, there was a flourishing 
Church in the island at the end of the third century. Upon the 
Saxon invasion, however, A. D. 450, Christianity was driven into 
corners, though not entirely swept away ; for upon the arrival of 
Augustine, we read of a conference taking place between him and 
the British Bishops whom he found in the island, as to the time 
of observing Easter, &c. [The northern and western portions of 
the island were greatly indebted to the preaching of holy men 
from Scotland and Ireland, amongst whom may be particularly 
mentioned the eminent and exemplary AIDAN.] 

2 From the time of the mission of Augustine, the foundation of 
this supremacy began to be laid ; but it could not be said to be 
acquired till the eleventh century, upon the accession of William 
the Conqueror, who gained the throne by the sword, and was glad 
to avail himself of the power of the Pope to establish him in his 

3 The vices or weaknesses, or deficiency of title of the English 

4 On the ground that it was an usurpation. 

5 That the Queen has an authority or power to command, even 
in matters of Christian Religion, and that there is no higher or 
greater above her in those things in which she is appointed to rule. 
But this supremacy by no means implies the power of performing 
any sacred function in the Church. 


munity 1 ? What is the nature of the relation 
where the Bishop of Rome is supreme 2 ? How 
does the commonwealth of England differ from the 
former of these two States 3 ? How from the 
latter 4 ? With what ancient polity does this con 
stitution agree 5 ? What power had Uzziah ? What 
power did he usurp? (2 Chron. xxvi. 16.) How 
was he punished for so doing? (verse 19 21.) 
What power was given to St. Peter 6 ? Show that 
the power of the sword was forbidden him. (Matt. 

xxvi. 52.) 

How has the measure of the Royal supremacy 
been expressed by King James 7 ? 

Punishment of Death. What does this Article 
affirm with regard to the punishment of death ? 
(Repeat Genesis ix. 6.) What reason is given for 
this injunction ? (verse 6, last clause.) Does this 

1 They are two independent Societies. 

2 The Church and the State are then ono Society ; hut the 
Bishop of Rome divides that Society by not suffering the Church 
to depend upon the Civil Magistrate ; and he debars the subjects 
from giving an undivided allegiance to their lawful sovereign. 

3 The Church and the State with us are one Society. 

4 The Church is in subjection to the Civil power, which it is not 
where the Bishop of Rome is supreme. 

5 That of the Jews. 

e The power of the keys, which means the power of exercising 

Church discipline. 

i King James says that the King s supremacy implies a { 
" to command obedience to be given to the Word of God, by re 
forming religion according to His prescribed will, by assisting i 
spiritual power with his temporal sword, by reformation of corrup 
tion, by procuring due obedience to the Church, by judging and 
cuttin^ off all frivolous questions and schisms, as Constantme did ; 
and finally, by making decorum to be observed in all indifferent 
things for that purpose, which is the only intent of the oath 
supremacy." (King James s Apology.} 


reason always remain ? What do you infer ? Was 
the punishment of death extended to other offences 
besides murder, under the Mosaic dispensation ? 
Do we find any prohibition of this sanction in the 
New Testament ? What does St. Paul declare with 
regard to the power of the civil magistrate ? (Ro 
mans xiii. 4.) What is meant by the sword 2 ? 
How does St. Paul admit the same principle in 
Acts xxv. 1].? For what objects does the civil 
power punish 3 ? Which of these is sacrificed in 
the punishment of death ? 

Lawfulness of War. What is the assertion 
in the last paragraph of this Article ? By whom 
were this and the former assertion denied at the 
time of the Reformation 4 ? 

Was war sanctioned in the Old Testament 5 ? 
Do we find any prohibition of it in the New? 
What advice did John the Baptist give to the sol 
diers who came to him for Baptism ? (Luke iii. 14.) 
How did the centurion, who besought Christ to 
heal his servant, describe himself? (Matt. viii. 9.) 
Does it appear that he renounced his profession of 
a soldier, when he embraced Christianity ? What 
was the character of Cornelius ? (Acts x. 2.) Did 

1 See Deut. xvii. 5. Exod. xxi. 15 17> &c. 

2 The sword is always considered as the instrument of death, 
and " bearing the sword " is an expression equivalent with 
" having the power of life and death." 

3 The civil power does not punish with the design of giving an 
offender his deserts ; but, first, for his reformation, and, secondly, 
for the protection of society. 

4 By the Anabaptists. 

The Jews were frequently engaged in war, and that by the 
command of God himself. (Num. xxxi. 2, 3. Josh. viii. 21, &c.) 


St. Peter urge him to forsake his calling upon his 
conversion ? By what example did St. Paul ex 
hort Timothy to diligence in his calling ? (2 Tim. 
ii. 4.) But though it thus appears that war is 
justifiable, is it not to be deprecated ? What 
would be the result, if the principles of Christianity 
gained their proper influence in the world ] ? 

Evidence from Antiquity. What is the testi 
mony of Socrates, the Ecclesiastical historian, as 
to the royal supremacy in primitive times 2 ? What 
is the comment of St. Chrysostom on Romans 
xiii. I. 3 ? Who does St. Basil say are meant by 
the higher powers 4 ? 

What is the testimony of Cyprian against the 
supremacy of the Bishop of Rome 5 ? How is the 

1 There would then be no more war. 

2 " We often comprehend kings in our history, because that 
from the time they began to be Christians, the business of the 
Church, or ecclesiastical causes, depended on them." (Socrat. 
prooem. ad 1. 5. Hist. Eccles.) 

3 " The Apostle showing how he commands this to all, both 
Priests and Monks, and not only to secular persons, he makes it 
clear from the first words, saying, * Let every soul, &c., though 
he be an Apostle, though he be an Evangelist, though he be a 
Prophet, or whosoever he be." (Chryaost. in Rom. Horn. 23.) 

4 BASIL." Paul the Apostle writing to the Romans, commands 
that they be subject to all powers that have the pre-eminence, to 
secular not spiritual powers, and this he manifests by what he adds, 
speaking of tribute and custom." (Basil. Constit. monast. c. 22. init.) 

3 CYPRIAN. " Nor hath any of us set himself up for a Bishop 
of Bishops, or by any tyrannical terror hath driven his colleagues 
into a necessity of submitting themselves to him ; since every 
Bishop is at liberty to use his power according to his discretion, 
and is neither to judge nor to be judged by another. But let us 
all look for the judgment of our Lord Jesus Christ, who alone hath 
the power both of advancing us to the government of his Church, 
and of judging us for what we do in the exercise of our office." 
(Cyprian in Concil. Caritiag.) 


lawfulness of inflicting the punishment of death 
for heinous offences attested by St. Augustine l ? 

Did the primitive Christians serve in war under 
heathen emperors 2 ? How does Augustine de 
scribe soldiers 3 ? 


Of Christian men s Goods, which are not common. 

The Riches and Goods of Christians are not common, 
as touching the right, title, and possession of the 
same, as certain Anabaptists do falsely boast. Not 
withstanding, every man ought of such things as he 
possesseth, liberally to give alms to the poor, according 
to his ability. 

De illicita Bonorum communicatione. 

Facultates et bona Christianorum non sunt com- 
munia, quoad jus et possessionem, ut quidam Anabap- 
tistae jactant ; debet tamen quisque de his quae possidet, 
pro facultatum ratione, pauperibus eleemosynas benigne 

Against what error is the first paragraph of 
this Article directed? Bv whom was this error 

1 AUGUSTINE. " He is no murderer who oweth his service to 
him who commandeth, as a sword is a help to him that useth it ; 
and therefore they do not at all transgress against this command 
whereby it is said, Thoushaltdo no murder, who, God being the 
author, serve in war, or representing the person of the public 
power, do according to his laws, that is, according to the command 
of the most just reason, punish the wicked with death." (Aug. de 
Civit. Dei, 1. i. c. 22.) 

2 TERTULLIAN expressly intimates that they did so. (Apol. c. 22.) 

3 AUGUSTINE. He calls them " non homicidas, sed ministros 
legis salutis publicae defensores." (Aug. cont. Faust. 22. 74.) 


maintained l ? What is the assertion of the last 
paragraph 2 ? 

What precepts of the Old Testament are at 
variance with the opinion condemned in this Arti 
cle 3 ? Repeat Matt, v. 42. What does this precept 
imply 4 ? When our Saviour commended his 
mother, the Vfrgin Mary, to the care of John, 
where did that disciple take her ? (John xix. 27, 
last clause.) What are we to infer from hence ? 
What other precepts of the New Testament show 
that Christian men s goods are not common ? 
(Rom. xii. 13. Heb. xiii. 16, &c.) Repeat 1 Tim. 
v. 8. Could this assertion consist with the notion 
of a community of goods ? 

Repeat Mark x. 21. Why do you infer that this 
precept is not of universal obligation 5 , ? Repeat 
Acts ii. 44 45. Why do you conclude that this 
practice was not intended to be of universal obli 
gation 6 ? How far does this intercommunity of 
goods appear to have prevailed 7 ? What circum 
stances rendered it expedient at that time ? 

1 By the Anabaptists. 

- The first paragraph condemns the notion of a community of 
goods, the second asserts the duty of charity. 

3 The eighth and the tenth commandments. 

4 It implies possession iu the person to whom it is addressed. 

5 Because it was addressed to a particular individual, who, it 
appears, was covetous, and to whom therefore it became a test of 

6 We must not separate one part of the text from the other ; if 
the whole practice of the early Christians is to be followed out in 
this particular, it would make it necessary for " all to be together." 

7 It was voluntary, (Acts v. 4.) limited in operation, (Acts ix. 36. 
Acts xi. 29, &c.) and caused by the peculiar circumstances of the 
Church in Jerusalem. 


The duty of almsgiving. What is the meaning 
of the words righteous and righteousness, as fre 
quently used in the Old Testament : ? By what 
argument from the Old Testament does St. Paul 


exhort the Corinthians to liberality ? (2 Cor. ix. 9.) 
For what reasons is almsgiving a necessary duty 2 ? 
What was it that recommended Cornelius to the 
Divine favour ? (Acts x. 4.) What apostolical pre 
cept recognizes a constant performance of this 
duty? (1 Cor. xvi. 2.) How is the same thing 
recognized by our own Church 3 ? 

Evidence from Antiquity. What precept of 
Clement of Rome shows that the idea of a general 
community of goods was not entertained in his 
time 4 ? What is the testimony of Justin Martyr 
on this point 5 ? 

1 The word righteous often means bountiful ; and righteousness 
means liberality or almsgiving. It is used in this sense in Psalm 
cxii. 6, as is evident by a comparison of that verse with verses 
5 and 9. (See Mede, Disc, xxii.) 

2 It is thanksgiving in the act, acknowledging God to be the Lord 
and Giver of all ; it reminds us of our Maker (Luke xii. 33 34) ; 
and it gives us a claim, through Christ, to mercy at the last day. 
(Matt. xxv. 34, &c.) 

3 The Church does not consider her service as complete without 
the offering up of alms to God, as is evident from the Offertory. 

4 CLEMENT. " Let him that is strong not despise him that is 
weak, and let him that is weak reverence him that is strong ; 
let the rich contribute to the poor, and the poor give thanks to 
God." (Clem. Rom. Ep. ad Corinth.} 

5 JUSTIN MARTYR. " Those of us that have much, and are 
willing, according to every man s pleasure, give and contribute 
as much as themselves will ; and that which is gathered is given 
to the President (r< Trpoeerruiri), and he helps orphans and 
widows with it, and those that are in want by reason of sickness, 
or any other cause, and those that are in bonds, and strangers 
that come a great .way ; and, in brief, he takes care of all that are 
in necessity." (Justin Martyr., Apol. 1. 6J.) 



Of a Christian man s Oath. 

As we confess that vain and rash Swearing is for 
bidden Christian men by our Lord Jesus Christ, and 
James his Apostle ; so we judge, that Christian Religion 
doth not prohibit, but that a man may swear when the 
Magistrate requireth, in a cause of faith and charity, 
so it be done according to the Prophet s teaching, in 
justice, judgment, and truth. 

De Jurejurando. 

Quemadmodum juramentum vanum et temerarium a 
Domino nostro Jesu Christo, et Apostolo ejus Jacobo, 
Christianis hominibus interdictum esse fatemur; ita Chris- 
tianorum religionem minime prohibere censemus, quin 
jubente Magistratu in causa fidei et charitatis jurare 
liceat, modo id fiat juxta prophetse doctrinam, in 
justitia, in judicio, et veritate. 

What kindof swearing does this Article condemn? 
What does it allow ? What are here meant by 
"faith and charity 1 ?" What is the Prophet s 
teaching here referred to ? (Jer. iv. 2.) What sects 
Ijave held that all oaths are unlawful 2 ? 

What is an oath 3 ? What precepts of Scripture 
forbid vain and rash swearing ? (Exod. xx. 7 ; 
Matt. v. 34, &c. ; James v. 12.) 

1 Faith here means simply the business of establishing the 
credit of any thing ; and charity includes any good and Christian 

2 The Anabaptists at the time when the Articles were drawn up, 
and the Quakers now. 

3 An appeal to God to be witness to what you are saying. 


Does it appear from the Old Testament that 
oaths were allowed in causes of faith and charity ! ? 
Is the same thing sanctioned in the New ? Repeat 
Mark viii. 12. What is the Greek version of the 
words " there shall be no sign, &c. 2 ?" Did our Lord 
object to take the oath when it was administered to 
Him in the palace of the high priest 3 ? What 
instances do the Epistles furnish us with, of solemn 
appeals made to God ? (Rom. i. 9 ; 2 Cor. xi. 31 ; 
Gal. i. 20, &c.) 

What kind of swearing does our Lord condemn 
in Matt. v. 34 4 ? Repeat James v. 12. What is 
meant by the expression " any other oath 5 ?" 

What three directions does the Prophet give 
with regard to the taking of an oath 6 ? In what 
form of words is the oath administered in our 
Courts of Justice 7 ? 

Evidence from Antiquity. Show from St. 
Cyril of Alexandria, that a Christian man s oath 

1 See Genesis xxi. 23 ; xxvi. 28 ; Lev. v. 1, &c. 

2 Et doOrjaerai Gr]p.iiov, &c., which was the regular forrn of 
an oath. See Matthew xxvi. 63, 64. 

3 The words Thou hast said were the Eastern mode of affirma 

4 Vain and rash swearing in common conversation, as is evident 
from the context. 

5 Any other oath of that kind, such as those just enumerated. 

6 It must be taken in truth, so as not to swear falsely ; in judg 
ment, so as not to swear ignorantly ; and in righteousness, so as not 
to swear unjustly. 

The witness pledges himself to speak the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth. 



is permitted ! . Show the same thing from 
St. Augustine 2 . 

1 CYRIL. " Let yea and nay, amongst those that have chosen to 
lead the best life, have the use and force of an oath, and let things 
be so confirmed; but if yea and nay be despised by any, let the use 
of oaths be at last turned or directed to that which is greater than 
us, yea and every creature, viz. the Deity." (Cyril. Alex, de 
Adorat. 1.6.) 

2 AUGUSTINE. " Though it be said we shall not swear, yet I do 
not remember it is any where read that we should not receive or 
take an oath from one another." (Aug. Ep. ad Pub. 47. 2.) 


This Book of Articles before rehearsed, is again 
approved, and allowed to be holden and executed within 
the Realm, by the assent and consent of our Sovereign 
Lady ELIZABETH, by the grace of God, of England, 
France, and Ireland, Queen, Defender of the Faith, fyc. 
Which Articles were deliberately read, and confirmed 
again by the subscript on of the hands of the Archbishops 
and Bishops of the Upper-house, and by the Subscription 
of the whole Clergy of the Nether-house in their Convo 
cation, in the Year of our Lord 1571. 


CLEMENT, BISHOP of ROME . about A.D. 93. 

IGNATIUS, BISHOP of ANTIOCH . about A.D. 100. 

POLYCARP, BISHOP of SMYRNA . about A.D. 160. 

JUSTIN MARTYR . . . about A.D. 150. 
IREN^EUS, BISHOP of LYONS . . .A.D. 177. 




n n > about A.D. 200. 



c A f about A. D. 202. 



ATHANASIUS, present as a DEACON at the! 

Council of Nice, A.D. 325, BISHOP of > A.D. 326. 



n > A.D. 370. 










I 2 



1. Of Faith in the Holy Trinity . 1 

2. Of Christ the Son of God . . . . 8 

3. Of His going down into Hell . . .14 

4. Of His Resurrection . . . . .15 

5. Of the Holy Ghost ..... 19 

6. Of the Sufficiency of the Scriptures . . 22 

7. Of the Old Testament . . . . .28 

8. Of the Three Creeds 32 

9. Of Original Sin 35 

10. Of Free-Will . . . . . .39 

11. Of Justification ...... 41 

12. Of Good Works 44 

13. Of Works before Justification . . .46 

14. Of Works of Supererogation . . .49 

15. Of Christ alone without Sin . . .51 

16. Of Sin after Baptism 55 

17. Of Predestination and Election . . .61 

18. Of obtaining Salvation by Christ . . .68 

19. Of the Church 7l 

20. Of the Authority of the Church ... 77 

21. Of the Authority of General Councils . .81 

22. Of Purgatory 85 

23. Of Ministering in the Congregation . . 95 

24. Of Speaking in the Congregation . . .106 

25. Of the Sacraments ... 107 



26. Of the Unworthiness of Ministers . 117 

27. Of Baptism .... .121 

28. Of the Lord s Supper . . . .127 

29. Of the Wicked which eat not the Body of 

Christ ... .134 

30. Of both kinds 136 

31. Of Christ s one Oblation . . . .137 

32. Of the Marriage of Priests . . 141 

33. Of Excommunicate Persons . .143 

34. Of the Traditions of the Church . 146 

35. Of the Homilies 151 

36. Of Consecration of Ministers 154 

37. Of Civil Magistrates 158 

38. Of Christian Men s Goods . 165 

39. Of a Christian Man s Oath . . . .168 
The Ratification . . -170 


GILBERT & RIVINGTON, Printers, St. John s Square, London. 






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